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CWI PSYC 101 Chap 6

Psychology in Everday Life by David G Myers

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning) associative learning
any event or situation that evokes a response stimulus
a type of learning in which we learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events classical conditioning
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response (UR) unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. (In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.) acquisition
in classical conditioning, the weakening of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus. (In operant conditioning, the weakening of a response when it is no longer reinforced.) extinction
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response spontaneous recovery
in classical conditioning, the tendency, after conditioning, to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus generalization
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli discrimination
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) behaviorism
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus respondent behavior
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher operant conditioning
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences operant behavior
a box (also known as a Skinner box) with an attached recording device to track the rate at which an animal presses the box's bar to obtain a reinforcer. Used in operant conditioning research operant chamber
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows reinforcement
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide actions closer and closer toward a desired behavior shaping
increases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is anything that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response positive reinforcement
increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is anything that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.) negative reinforcement
an event that is innately reinforcing, often by satisfying a biological need primary reinforcer
an event that gains its reinforcing power through its link with a primary reinforcer conditioned reinforcer (also known as secondary reinforcer)
a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced reinforcement schedule
reinforcing a desired response every time it occurs continuous reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement partial (intermittent) reinforcement
an event that decreases the behavior it follows punishment
a mental image of the layout of one's environment cognitive map
learning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it latent learning
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to gain a reward or avoid a punishment extrinsic motivation
learning by observing others observational learning
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior modeling
neurons that fire when we perform certain actions or observe others doing so mirror neurons
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior prosocial behavior
Created by: jennifermycwi