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Gen. Psych exam 2

ch. 4, 5, & 6

? is everything of which we are aware at any given time--our thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions of the external environment. Consciousness
A change in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or drugs. Altered state of consciousness
Regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors within a 24-hour cycle. Regulates all vital life functions. Circadian Rhythms
*structure in the hypothalamus *The body's biological clock *Controls the timing of circadian rhythms *Signals the pineal gland to secrete or suppress melatonin. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
nature's sleeping pill melatonin
The symptoms of ? result from the difference between our internal clock and the time in our environment. Jet lag
It is easier to adapt to ? (east-west travel) then to ? (west-east travel) Phase delays; phase advances
The time during a 24-hour period when the biological clock tells a person to go to sleep. Subjective night
The function of sleep is to restore body and mind. What theory is this? Restorative theory of sleep
Sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm's way during the night. Also known as the evolution theory. Circadian theory of sleep
non-rapid eye movement sleep; characterized by slow respiration and heart rate, little body movement, and low blood pressure and brain activity NREM sleep
Characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis of large muscles, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain activity, and vivid dreams. REM sleep
? aids in information processing, helping people shift daily experience, to organize and store in memory information that is relevant to them REM sleep
? negatively impacts mood, alertness, and performance and reduces the body's ability to warm itself, even at relatively comfortable temperatures Sleep deprivation
*Fatigue *Impaired concentration *Irritability *Immune Suppression *Slowed performance *auto accidents Sleep deprivation
Have a story like quality and are more visual, vivid, and emotional. REM dreams
Occur during NREM sleep; less frequent and memorable. NREM dreams
Set of techniques that enable dreamers to control the content of dreams Lucid dreaming
Story line Freud's manifest content
Underlying; meaning of a dream Freud's Latent content
Dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of random firing of brain cells during REM sleep. Activation-synthesis theory of dreaming
Dreaming is simply thinking while asleep Cognitive theory of dreaming
The most common sleep compliant; a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep, by waking too early or by sleep that is light, restless, or of poor quality. Insomnia
Sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle weakness narcolepsy
Serious life threatening condition in which the flow of air to the lungs stops for at least 10 seconds and may not start again for a minute or longer. Sleep apnea
A parasomnia that occurs during stage 4 sleep, usually in children sleepwalking
individuals are not paralyzed during REM sleep REM sleep disorder
any substance that alters mood, perception, or thought. Psychoactive Drug
a craving or irresistible urge for a drug’s pleasurable effects. Psychological Dependence
Craving-the desire to take a drug Relapse-a return to the use of a drug following a period of abstinence from use of the drug. Common Features of Addiction
Need more to achieve same effect Tolerance
Discomfort and distress with discontinued use. Withdrawal
Reduce neural activity and slow bodily function Depressants
the leading cause of mental retardation in the Western world today is alcohol consumption by pregnant women Alcohol
Sleeping pills Anti-anxiety pills Barbiturates
• Speed up bodily functions Increase heart rate, breathing Appetite diminishes Increased energy and self-control Stimulants
Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Amphetamines Stimulants
• Psychedelic drugs distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD Hallucinogens
Marijuana Ecstasy Hallucinogens
Reduction in serotonin Memory loss Mood regulation Learning Long term effects of ecstasy
a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experiences and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation. Learning
a type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. Classical conditioning
any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds. Stimulus
a learned reflex rather than a naturally occurring one. conditioned reflexes
inborn, automatic, unlearned response to a particular stimulus. Unconditioned reflexes
Weakening and eventual disappearance of the CR as a result of repeated presentation of CS without the US Extinction
Reappearance of an extinguished CR when an organism is exposed to the CS following a rest period Spontaneous recovery
Tendency to make a CR to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS Generalization
Learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the CR occurs only to the original CS but not to similar stimuli. Discrimination
Conditioned fears “persist to modify personality throughout life” Watson and Rayner (1920) “Little Albert” study
the intense dislike and/or avoidance of particular foods that have been associated with nausea or discomfort. Taste aversions
A type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated so as to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response. Operant conditioning
formulated the law of effect Edward Thorndike
The consequence, or effect, of a response determines whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future is strengthened or weakened The Law of Effect
• The law of effect formed the basis for B.F. Skinner’s work on the ? Operant conditioning
the causes of behavior are in the environment and do not result from inner mental events, such as thoughts, feelings, or perceptions. Skinner's definiteion of operant conditioning
anything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases the probability that it will be repeated. Reinforcement
A pleasant or desirable consequence that increases the probability that a response will be repeated (present to increase behavior). Positive Reinforcement
- Termination of an unpleasant condition after a response, which increases the probability that the response will be repeated (Remove to increase behavior). Negative reinforcement
A reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need and does not depend on learning Primary Reinforcer
A reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers. Secondary reinforcer
Gradually molding a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response. Shaping
reinforcement that follows every target response Continuous reinforcement
reinforcement that does not follow every target response Partial reinforcement
require that a certain number of responses be made before one of the responses is reinforced. Ratio schedules
a given amount of time must pass before a reinforcer is administered. Interval schedules
Reinforcer given after a fixed number of correct nonreinforced responses. Fixed Ratio
Reinforcer is given after a varying number of nonreinforced responses Variable ratio
Reinforcer is given after first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed. Fixed ratio
Reinforcer is given after first correct response following a carrying period of time. Variable interval
mental processes such as thinking, knowing, and problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations. Cognitive processes
?contends that many behaviors or responses are acquired through observational learning, or as he more often calls it now, ? Albert Bandra; social-cognitive learning
learning by observation the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior; learning by imitation. Observational learning
Sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem, which makes the solution apparent. Insight
Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so Latent learning
Latent Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so Edward Tolman
A mental representation of a spatial arrangement such as a maze Cognitive map
is the persistence of learning over time. Memory
How does information fit into memory? Encoding
physiological change in the brain Consolidation
How is information maintained? Storage
How is information pulled back out of memory? Retrieval
Transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory Encoding
Maintaining information in memory Storage
Bringing stored material to mind Retrieval
Briefly holds information from the senses Sensory memory
Holds about seven (plus or minus two) items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal Also called working memory Short-term Memory
purposely repeating information to keep it in STM Rehearsal
Grouping bits of information into larger units which are easier to remember Chunking
has a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a person’s permanent or relatively permanent memories Long term memory
Stores facts and information, and life events Declarative memory
Stores motor skills, habits, simple conditioned responses Nondeclarative memory
Task in which a person must search memory to produce required information Recall
two words that associate with each other Paired Associate
Task in which a person must identify information as having been encountered before Recognition
Measures retention in terms of time saved when relearning material compared to learning it originally Relearning
Recall is better for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items in the sequence Serial Position effect
Tendency to recall the first items in a sequence more easily than the middle items. Primary effect
Tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more easily than the middle items. Recensy effect
People recall material more easily in the same environment in which they learned it State dependent
recalls best when in the dame emotional state as when the information was encoded State dependent memory effect
The relationship between time and forgetting is called The Curve of forgetting
Information already stored in memory interferes with remembering newer information Proactive interference
New learning interferes with remembering previously learned information. Retroactive interference
Material never put in long term memory Encoding failure
memory trace if not used, disappears in time Decay theory
Forgetting through suppression or repression to protect self from painful or unpleasant information Motivated forgetting
Not remembering to carry out some intended action Prospective forgetting
Not remembering something one is certain of knowing Retrieval failure
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon Retrieval failure
Putting information in categories, sequences, sizes, or shapes to make retrieval easier. Organization
Practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error Over learning
Sleep, Emotional conditions, Stress, Anxiety, Nutrition are all factors affecting? • Substance use Hormonal fluctuations Memory
Created by: Taylor Boyleston