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PSY 218 Test 1

QuestionAnswer
Unconditioned Reflexes Unconditioned stimulus elicits unconditioned response.
Respondent Conditioning -Process: US---->UR -Outcome: CS---->CR
Examples of Respondent Conditioning Pavlov's Dog. Sexual arousal. Fear/phobia.
Respondent Extinction Present the CS repeatedly without the US. The CS will no longer elicit a CR.
Higher Order Conditioning -Process: CS1----> CR (Neutral stimulus paired with CS1) -Outcome: CS2---->CR. A neutral stimulus becomes a CS when paired with another CS.
Spontaneous Recovery After respondent extinction has occurred. The CS may once again elicit a CR.
Discrimination and Respondent Behavior A single CS or narrow range of CSs elicit a CR. Example: Fear of one specific dog.
Generalization of Respondent Behavior A number of similar CSs elicit the same CR. Example: Fear of all dogs.
Applied Behavior Analysis Based on Skinner's operant conditioning. -For learning to occur a person must be involved as an active participant. Uses reinforcement, punishment, extinction, stimulus control.
Extinction Behavior is no longer reinforced when it occurs in specific circumstances. Behavior stops occurring in the future in similar circumstances.
Punishment Discourages someone from repeating a behavior.
Punisher Aversive stimulus.
Positive punishment Stimulus presented after behavior.
Antecedent Behavior--->Consequence.
Negative Punishment Something desirable taken away after behavior.
Differential Reinforcement The procedure in which stimulus control is established. i.e. positive reinforcement for a behavior given one SD, extinction for the same behavior given a different SD.
Stimulus Control Occurrs when an antecedent stimulus systematically affects the probability of a response occurring.
Masking Additional stimulus disables affect of original stimulus.
Overshadowing Subject is distracted from stimulus by another stimulus.
Two types of prompts Respones prompts, stimulus prompts.
Response prompt Involves the behavior of another person. ---> Verbal, gestural, modeling, and physical prompts.
Stimulus Prompt Involves change in an antecedent stimulus. ---> WIthin stimulus prompt, extra-stimulus prompt.
Behavior Defined as what people say and do.
Stimulus Discrimination Training Reinforce the behavior in the presence of on SD, do not reinforce the behavior in the presence of other antecedent.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Elicits response without learning.
Unconditioned Response (UCR) Unlearned, inborn response.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Acquires ability to elicit after paired association with unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR) Elicited by conditioned stimulus.
Operant Conditioning Learning from the consequences of your behavior.
Law of effect Consequences determine response occurring in the future.
Shaping Reinforcement of successive approximation of a target behavior.
Fading A prompted response is no longer under stimulus control.
Prompt An antecedent stimulus or even that controls a response. A prompt gets the behavior to occur in the correct situation so the behavior can be reinforced.
Prompt Delay Present the SD, wait X number of seconds, then present the prompt (if needed).
Prompt Fading Gradually removing the response prompt. Example: Coach provides less and less physical assistance to Trevor to hit the ball.
Stimulus Fading Gradually removing the stimulus prompt. Example: Students look at the answers on the flash cards less and less as they learn the answers to the multiplication problems.
Reinforcement 1. The occurrence of a behavior. 2. Results immediately in a consequence. 3. The behavior is strengthened (more likely to occur again in the future in similar circumstances)
Operant Behavior Behavior that is strengthened through the process of reinforcement. -Behavior that is controlled by its consequences.
Reinforcer The consequence (stimulus or event) that follows operant behavior and strengthens operant behavior
Positive Reinforcement Behavior is followed by the presentation of a stimulus (a reinforcer) and the behavior is strengthened.
Negative Reinforcement Behavior is followed by the removal of a stimulus (a punisher/aversive stimulus) and the behavior is strengthened.
Escape The behavior results in the termination of (escape from) the aversive stimulus and the behavior is strengthened.
Avoidance The behavior results in the prevention of (avoidance of) the aversive stimulus and the behavior is strengthened.
Unconditioned Reinforcers Biologically determined -survival value for the individual. Food, water, human contact, (warmth), oxygen, sexual contact, escape from cold, heat, pain, extreme levels of stimulation.
Conditioned Reinforcers A previously neutral stimulus. -Repeatedly paired with an established reinforcer (an unconditioned or conditioned reinforcer) -Will function as a reinforcer.
Continuous Reinforcement Each response is followed by the reinforcer.
Intermittent Reinforcement Not every response is followed by a reinforcer.
Rixed Ratio Schedules Reinforcer after X number of responses. -The number doesn't change. -Produces high rate/post reinforcement pause.
Variable Ratio Schedules Reinforcer after X number of responses on the average. -Produces high rate/no post-reinforcement pause. Example: Slot machine, phone solicitors.
Fixed Interval Schedules Reinforcer for the first response after X amount of time - time interval does not change. -Produces low rate or responding that increases at the end of the interval. -Rarely used in behavior modification. -Examples: Mail delivery every 2 hours.
Variable Interval Schedules Reinforcer for the first response after X amount of time on the average. -Produces low but steady rate of behavior. -Rarely used in behavior modification. -Examples: unpredictable supervisor checks, checking phone messages.
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement Schedules of reinforcement that exist at the same time for two or more different behaviors. -Concurrent operants -Factors influencing choice of concurrent operants: schedule of reinforcement, magnitude of reinforcement, immediacy of reinforcement...
Extinction Burst When the reinforcer no longer follows a particular behavior, three things may happen initially: 1. Increase in frequency, duration, or intensity of unreinforced behavior. 2. Increase in novel behaviors. 3. Increase in emotional/aggressive behavi
Spontaneous Recovery The behavior occurs again sometime later after it was eliminated with extinction.
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Created by: 569314993