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MOB Test 2

Management and Organizational Behavior - Chapters 4, 5, 6

The code of moral principles and values that governs the behaviors of a person or group with respect to what is right or wrong. Ethics
The individual who must make an ethical choice in an organization. Moral Agent
A situation that arises when all alternative choices or behaviors are deemed undesirable because of potentially negative consequences, making it difficult to distinguish right from wrong. Ethical Dilemma
The ethical concept that moral behaviors produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Utilitarian Approach
The ethical concept that acts are moral when they promote an individual's best long-term interests. Individualism Approach
The ethical concept that moral decisions are those that best maintain the rights of those people affected by them. Moral-rights Approach
The ethical concept that moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness, and impartiality. Justice Approach
The concept that different treatment of people should not be based on arbitrary characteristics. In the case of substantive differences, people should be treated differently in proportion to the differences among them. Distributive Justice
The concept that rules should be clearly stated and consistently and impartially enforced. Procedural Justice
The concept that individuals should be compensated for the cost of their injuries by the party responsible and also that individuals should not be held responsible for matters over which they have no control. Compensatory Justice
Follows rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest. Obedience for its own sake. Leadership style-autocratic/coercive. Employee behavior-task accomplishment. Level 1: Preconventional
Lives up to expectations of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of social system. Upholds laws. Leadership style-guiding/encouraging, team oriented. Employee behavior-work group collaboration. Level 2: Conventional
Follows self-chosen principles of justice and right. Aware that people hold different values and seeks creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. Balances concern for individual with concern for common good. Leadership style-transforming/servant leadership Level 3 Postconventional
The obligation of organization management to make decisions and take actions that will enhance the welfare and interests of society as well as the organization. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Any group within or outside the organization that has a stake in the organization's performance. Stakeholder
The idea that large corporations can both alleviate social problems and make a profit by selling goods and services to the world's poorest people. Bottom-of-the-pyramid (BOP) Concept
Economic development that generates wealth and meets the needs of the current population while preserving the environment for the needs of future generations. Sustainability
Required activities that concern financial well-being of the organization and the legal and moral decisions. Economic and Ethical Responsibilities
Organizational responsibility that is voluntary and guided by the organization's desire to make social contributions not mandated by economics, law, or ethics. Discretionary Responsibility
Providing strategy and being a role model for the organization to make legal and moral choices and to be a good citizen of the community. Ethical Leadership
A formal statement of the organization's values regarding ethics and social issues. Code of Ethics
These are designed to affect corporate culture; they define fundamental values and contain general language about company responsibilities, quality of products, and treatment of employees. Principle-based Statements
Generally outline the procedures to be used in specific ethical situations. These situations include marketing practices, conflicts of interest, observance of laws, proprietary information, political gifts, and equal opportunities. Policy-based Statements
A group of executives assigned to oversee an organization's ethics by ruling on questionable issues and disciplining violators. Ethics Committee
A company executive who oversees ethics and legal compliance. Chief Ethics Officer
Training programs to help employees deal with ethical questions and values. Ethics Training
The disclosure by an employee of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices by an organization. Whistle-blowing
A desired future state that an organization attempts to realize. Goal
A blueprint specifying the resource allocations, schedules, and other actions necessary for attaining goals. Plan
The act of determining the organization's goals and the means for achieving them. Planning
Define mission, vision. Set goals. 1. Develop the Plan
Define tactical plans and objectives. Develop strategy map. Define contingency plans and scenarios. Identify intelligence teams. 2. Translate the Plan
Define operational goals and plans. Select measures and targets. Set stretch goals. Crisis planning. 3. Plan Operations
Use: Management by objectives, performance dashboards, single use plans, decentralized responsibility. 4. Execute the Plan
Hold planning and reviews. Hold operational reviews. 5. Monitor and Learn
The organization's reason for existence. Mission
A broadly stated definition of the organization's basic business scope and operations that distinguish it from similar types of organizations. Mission Statement
Broad statements of where the organization wants to be in the future; they pertain to the organization as a whole rather than to specific divisions or departments. Strategic Goals
The action steps by which an organization intends to attain strategic goals. Strategic Plans
Goals that define the outcomes that major divisions and departments must achieve for the organization to reach its overall goals. Tactical Goals
Plans designed to help execute major strategic plans and to accomplish a specific part of the company's strategy. Tactical Plans
Specific, measurable results expected from departments, work groups, and individuals within the organization. Operational Goals
Plans developed at the organization's lower levels that specify action steps toward achieving operational goals and that support tactical planning activities. Operational Plans
A visual representation of the key drivers of an organization's success that shows the cause-and-effect relationships among goals and plans. Strategy Map
A method of management whereby managers and employees define goals for every department, project, and person and use them to monitor subsequent performance. Management By Objectives (MBO)
Plans that are developed to achieve a set of goals that are unlikely to be repeated in the future. Single-use Plans
Ongoing plans that are used to provide guidance for tasks performed repeatedly within the organization. Standing Plans
Plans that define company responses to specific situations such as emergencies, setbacks, and unexpected conditions. Contingency Plans
Looking at trends and discontinuities and imagining possible alternative futures to build a framework within which unexpected future events can be managed. Scenario Building
A group of planning specialists who develop plans for the organization as a whole and its major divisions and departments and typically report directly to the president or CEO. Central Planning Department
Managers of divisions or departments work with planning experts to develop their own goals and plans. Decentralized Planning
A reasonable yet highly ambitious and compelling goal that energizes people and inspires excellence. Stretch Goal
A cross-functional group of managers and employees who work together to gain a deep understanding of a specific competitive issue and offer insight and recommendations for planning. Intelligence Team
The set of decisions and actions used to formulate and implement strategies that will provide a competitively superior fit between the organization and its environment so as to achieve organizational goals. Strategic Management
The plan of action that prescribes resource allocation and other activities for dealing with the environment, achieving a competitive advantage, and attaining organizational goals. Strategy
What sets the organization apart from others and provides it with a distinctive edge in the marketplace. Competitive Advantage
A business activity that an organization does particularly will in comparison to competitors. Core Competence
The condition that exists when the organization's parts interact to produce a joint effect that is greater than the sum of the parts acting alone. Synergy
The stage of strategic management that involves the planning and decision making that lead to the establishment of the organization's goals and of a specific strategic plan. Strategy Formulation
The stage of strategic management that involves the use of managerial and organizational tools to direct resources toward achieving strategic outcomes. Strategy Execution
Analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) that affect organizational performance. SWOT Analysis
A type of competitive strategy with which the organization seeks to distinguish its products or services from those of competitors. Differentiation
A type of competitive strategy with which the organization aggressively seeks efficient facilities, cuts costs, and employs tight cost controls to be more efficient than competitors. Cost Leadership
A type of competitive strategy that emphasizes concentration on a specific regional market or buyer group. Focus
Leveraging and developing more from the firm's existing assets, capabilities, and core competencies in a way that will provide a sustained competitive advantage. Dynamic Capabilities
Plans made to sell products in foreign markets. Export Strategy
A choice made from available alternatives. Decision
The process of identifying problems and opportunities and then resolving them. Decision Making
A decision made in response to a situation that has occurred often enough to enable decision rules to be developed and applied in the future. Programmed Decision
A decision made in response to a situation that is unique, is poorly defined and largely unstructured, and has important consequences for the organization. Nonprogrammed Decision
The situation in which all the information the decision maker needs is fully available. Certainty
A situation in which a decision has clear-cut goals and good information is available but the future outcomes associated with each alternative are subject to chance. Risk
The situation that occurs when managers know which goals they wish to achieve, but information about alternatives and future events is incomplete. Uncertainty
A condition in which the goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear, alternatives are difficult to define, and information about outcomes is unavailable. Ambiguity
A decision-making model based on the assumption that managers should make logical decisions that will be in the organization's best economic interests. Classical Model
An approach that defines how a decision maker should make decisions and provides guidelines for reaching an ideal outcome for the organization. Normative
A decision-making model that describes how managers actually make decisions in situations characterized by nonprogrammed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity. Administrative Model
An approach that describes how managers actually make decisions rather than how they should make decisions according to a theoretical ideal. Descriptive
The concept that people have the time and cognitive ability to process only a limited amount of information on which to base decisions. Bounded Rationality
To choose that first solution alternative that satisfies minimal decision criteria, regardless of whether better solutions are presumed to exist. Satisficing
The immediate comprehension of a decision situation based on past experience but without conscious thought. Intuition
An informal alliance among managers who support a specific goal. Coalition
A situation in which organizational accomplishments have failed to meet established goals. Problem
A situation in which managers see potential organizational accomplishments that exceed current goals. Opportunity
The step in the decision-making process in which managers analyze underlying causal factors associated with the decision situation. Diagnosis
The willingness to undertake risk with the opportunity of gaining an increased payoff. Risk Propensity
The step in the decision-making process that involves using managerial, administrative, and persuasive abilities to translate the chosen alternative into action. Implementation
Differences among people with respect to how they perceive problems and make decisions. Decision Styles
A technique that uses a face-to-face group to spontaneously suggest a broad range of alternatives for decision making. Brainstorming
Bringing people together in an interactive group over a computer network to suggest alternatives; sometimes call brainwriting. Electronic Brainstorming
A decision-making technique in which an individual is assigned the role of challenging the assumptions and assertions made by the group to prevent premature consensus. Devil's Advocate
A decision-making technique in which people are assigned to express competing points of view. Point-Counterpoint
The tendency of people in groups to suppress contrary opinions. Groupthink
Continuing to invest time and resources in a failing decision. Escalating Commitment
The hardware, software, telecommunication, database management, and other technologies used to store, process, and distribute information. Information Technology (IT)
The process of systematically gathering knowledge, making it widely available throughout the organization, and fostering a culture of learning. Knowledge Management
Raw, unsummarized, and unanalyzed facts and figures. Data
Data that have been converted into a meaningful and useful context for the receiver. Information
A conclusion drawn from information after it is linked to other information and compared to what is already known. Knowledge
A single point of access for employees to multiple sources of information that provides personalized access on the corporate intranet. Knowledge Management Portal
A web site that allows anyone with access, inside or outside the organization, to create, share, and edit content through a simple, browser-based user interface. Wiki
Software that analyzes data from multiple sources and extracts useful insights, patterns, and relationships that might be significant. Business Intelligence Software
A computer-based system that provides information and support for effective managerial decision making. Management Information System (MIS)
A networked information system that collects, processes, and provides information about an organization's entire enterprise from identification of customer needs and receipt of orders to distribution of products and receipt of payments. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
Web log that allows individuals to post opinions and ideas. Blog
Online interaction in a community format where people share personal information and photos, produce and share all sorts of information and opinions, or unity activists and raise funds. Social Networking
File sharing that allows PCs to communicate directly with one another over the internet bypassing central databases, servers, control points, and web pages. Peer-to-peer File Sharing
Any business that takes place by digital processes over a computer network rather than in physical space. E-business
Business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically. E-commerce
An internal communications system that uses the technology and standards of the internet but is accessible only to people within the organization. Intranet
An external communications system that uses the internet and is shared by two or more organizations. Extranet
A systematic attempt to increase sales through adding target groups. Market Expansion
Created by: AbbyP



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