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inspiration and expiration is? a.inspiration b.ventilation c.respiration d.exhalation ventilation
There are ___ thoracic vertebrae? a.10 b. 12 c. 7 12
There are ____ true ribs? a. ribs 1-10 b. ribs 1-7 c. ribs 1-12 b. 1-7, 8-10 are false ribs, 11-12 are floating
What is the process located at tip of sternum? xyphoid
The mediastinum separates the lungs and contains the heart, large vessels, trachea, esophagus etc.. T or F True
Respiration is the exchange of O2 and ____ between the air and the cells of the body. a. CO b. CO2 c. Hydrogen b. CO2
The upper respiratory tract contains the _____ and ______. a. Nose and Trachea b. Nose and Pharynx c. Nose and Bronchi b. Nose and pharynx
Air is warmed, moistened and filtered in the ______ and _______. a. Nose and mouth b. Nose and Trachea c. This does not occur a. Nose and mouth
The tracheobronchial tree has 23 branches. T or F True
The first part of the trachea is called the 'voice box' or _______. a. glottis b. larynx c. bronchus b. larynx
The trachea receives air from the glottis and is covered by the epiglottis which closes when eating or drinking to prevent aspiration. T or F True
The trachea measures from C3-C6. T or F True
The trachea is a cartilaginous tube made lined with smooth muscle. T or F True
Goblet cells in the trachea lining produce mucous. T or F True
At T5 the trachea splits into the right and left main bronchi. T or F True
The bronchi connected to the lungs called lobar bronchi,total 3 on right for each right lung lobe and 2 on the left. T or F True
There are only 2 lobes in the left lung and it is smaller because the heart lies in the chest cavity on the left side. T or F True
Bronchi associated with each segment of each lobe of of each lung are called segmental bronchi. T or F True
The smaller branches of the Bronchial tree are called alveoli. T or F False, they are called bronchioles
The alveolar ducts connect the bronchioles to alveolar sacs. T or F True
Alveoli are known as 'air sacs'. T or F True
Alveoli are one cell thick and make up the actual lung tissue where gas exchange occurs through contact with the capillaries. T or F True
There are 2 types of pleural membranes, the visceral and the parietal pleura. T or F True
The visceral pleura covers the lungs. T or F True
The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall. T or F True
The pleural fluid between the 2 membranes serves no purpose. T or F False, it allows the 2 membranes to slide across each other
Pleurisy is the condition caused by the membranes becoming dry and sticking together. T or F True
The primary muscle of quiet inspiration is called the ______: a. stomach b. pelvis c. trachea d. lung e. diaphragm e
The diaphragm is innervated by C3-5 (phrenic nerve), T or F True
The diaphragm is normally domed at rest. T or F True
Negative pressure is caused in the lungs when the diaphragm rises.T or F False, the diaphragm contracts and flattens which causes an increase in the vertical space of the thoracic cavity which causes air pressure to drop creating negative pressure which causes air to move into the lungs.
The external intercostals lift the ribs up and out to assist the diaphragm. T or F True
Accessory muscles assist when a deeper inspiration is needed or to compensate for inadequate movement of the diaphragm, or other conditions affecting the lungs. T or F True, these are SCM, Scalenes, Upper traps, Pectoralis Major and minor, serratus anterior
Inadequate diaphragm movement can be found in patients with ALS or SCI. T or F True, Innervation problems with the phrenic nerve may exist with ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) or SCI.
The thorax enlarges in 3 planes with inspiration. T or F True
The AP plane is the pump handle movement of upper ribs. T or F True
The vertical plane is created with the downward movement (flattening) of the diaphragm. T or F True
The lateral plane is a bucket handle movement of the middle and lower ribs. T or F True
The ability that the lungs are said to have which allows them to fill with air on inspiration is called compliance or distensibility. T or F True, lung tissue also has elasticity (recoil) which allows the lungs to return to normal position after a breath.
disease and age have no affect on lung compliance and elasticity. T or F False
Quiet expiration is passive. T or F True, the diaphragm relaxes, moves up, decreasing the intrathoracic space, air moves out and lungs recoil.
Forced expiration is not assisted by the abdominal muscles. T or F false, Abdominals contract, intercostals depress the ribs and the latissimus dorsi may be involved to force abdominal contents up into the thoracic space expelling air.
Motor nerves carry impulses from the Brain stem ( medulla and pons) which is the respiratory center for the body. T or F True, This controls rate and depth of respiration. The motor nerves send impulses to the muscles of respiration in response to the body's metabolic needs.
Central and peripheral chemoreceptors also influence respiration. T or F True
Hypercapnia ( increased CO2- HCO3 making the blood more acidic) causes an increase in ventilation. This is: Central or Peripheral? Central chemoreceptors are sensitive to the level of CO2 in arterial blood.
Peripheral chemoreceptors are in the carotid and aortic bodies. T or F True, and are sensitive to the PaO2 in arterial blood. A decrease in oxygen saturation will increase ventilation.
Younger people have slower respiratory rates than older people. T or F False, younger people have faster normal respiratory rates
A person that is fit will not work as hard to breathe during exercise. T or F True
Pneumonia is a risk factor for bed confined patients because the supine position compresses the chest leading to decreased lung expansion resulting in poor ventilation and pooling of fluid. T or F True
COPD patients often cannot tolerate a horizontal position. T or F True
Certain drugs can depress the respiratory center in the brain. T or F True
Normal RR for an adult is : a. 12-20 breaths a min b. 12-16 breaths a min c. 10-20 breaths a min a
A newborn's RR is the same as an adult. T or F False, normal RR for a newborn is 30-50 breaths/min.
Respiratory rhythms are described as : a. regular/irregular b. noisy/quiet c. fast/slow A
Depth of respiration indicates the volume of air inhaled and exhaled. T or F True, and can be even, deep,or shallow
The amount of effort and sound during respiration is described by the character of respirations. T or F True, as with dyspnea describing the character of difficult or labored breathing.
Breath sounds are charted as wheezes, rales, rhonchi, etc.. T or F true
Wheezes are heard on inspiration/expiration and are louder on expiration. T or F True, caused by air passing through congested or narrowed bronchi or bronchioles as with asthma, etc.
Rales are crackles ( sound like rustling leaves) heard on inspiration and are caused by secretions in small distal airways. T or F True
Coarse rattling or popping during the breath is described as rhonchi. T or F true, caused by congested larger proximal airways and can be cleared by coughing.
Stridor is a high pitched harsh sound caused by upper airway tracheal or upper bronchus obstruction. T or F True occurs during inspiration
Frequent sighs can be a sign of emotional stress, T or F True and are extremely annoying to spouses.
Forced expiration against a closed glottis causing it to open and expel secretions is called a; a. sigh b. hiccup c. cough c
Tachypnea is a respiratory pattern that is slow. T or F False, rapid
Bradypnea is a slow respiratory pattern. T or F True
Hyperventilation is an increased respiratory rate and depth pattern. T or F True,
Cheyne- Stokes respirations often precede death. T or F True, and have a pattern of increased rate/depth, followed by slow rate/depth then periods of apnea ( no breathing)
Orthopnea is experienced by patients who have difficulty breathing when horizontal like COPD patients. T or F True
Apnea is a normal respiratory pattern. T or F False apnea is the absence of respirations
Created by: heatxfer
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