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AP Psych Chapter 10

Thinking and Language

cognition the mental activities of thinking, knowing, and remembering
concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype a mental image or best example of a category
algorithm a slow, methodical approach to solving a problem
heuristic a quick, simple, and sometimes error-prone approach to solving a problem
insight a sudden and novel realization of the solution to a problem
confirmation bias the tendency to search for information that supports beliefs or predispositions
fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective
mental set the tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially one that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness the failure to perceive uses for an object that differ from its intended function
representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things by comparing them to particular prototypes, can lead to the removal of relevant information
availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
overconfidence the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of personal beliefs and judgements
belief bias the tendency for preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
belief perseverance clinging to initial conceptions, even after they have been discredited
language spoken, written, or signed words and the way in which people combine them to create meaning
phoneme the smallest distinctive sound units in a language
morpheme the smallest sound unit that carries meaning in a language
grammar a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
babbling stage a stage that begins at about 4 months in which an infant begins to spontaneously utter various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from about 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage a stage during which a child speaks mostly in two word statements that begins at about age 2
telegraphic speech an early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs without adding auxiliary word
Artificial Intelligence the study and design of replicating human qualities of intelligence in machines
Linguistic Determinism The theory that all the thoughts available to a particular group of people come from their language
framing the process of imposing selective influence on stimuli, presenting it in a particular manner
Created by: Kingsclass
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