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color glossary

glossary of color

QuestionAnswer
alkaline substance an ingredient in hair color that has a pH greater than 7, causing the cuticle to open and permanent color to enter the cortex.
ammonia(NH3) most common source of alkaline substance in a single- and double-process tint. opens the cuticle to allow color intermediates to penetrate.
aniline derivative a coal tar derivative that creates the dye intermediates used in single-process permanent haircoloring.
base ingredient of permanent haircolor that holds the product together; can be a creme, oil, protein, wax, gel, or shampoo.
base color(BC) your client's natural or existing haircolor.
bleach product used to lighten hair. usually mixed with hydrogen peroxide and highly alkaline.
brassy term used to describe color that is off-color and contains too much warmth, either gold or orange.
certified hair colors tints (temporary) registered and deemed safe by the FDA.
chelating agents act to remove unwanted build up such as metallic ions and metallic deposits; common ingredient in cleansing or clarifying shampoos.
clarifier a treatment that removes unwanted buildup on the hair.
color base the portion of the hair color mixture that connects or holds the other ingredients together. referred to as the dominant color in any given shade or series.
color wheel the universal guide for color mixing and formulation.
complementary color colors that look best and brightest when placed next to eachother when mixed, they neutralize on another.
cool lack of warmth, no warm tones; ash
corrective color process of changing or correcting overlightened or damaged hair;can also refer to major changes in the color of the hair.
cortex is where the color molecules are; main inner body of the hair shaft that is fibrous and contains the protein structure of the hair.
creme oil bleach a bleach that contains oil making it more gentle on the scalp.
cuticle extremely thin protective outer layer of the hair shaft consisting of over lapping scales.
decolorize the process of removing natural or artificial pigment from the hair.
deposit(+) the portion of single-process oxidation when the color intermediates enter the cortex of the hair.
developer the oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, that causes the haircolor formula to activate when mixed with color product.
direct dye used in semi-permanent color, it is a molecule that has color.
*dominant remaining pigment(DRP) the color that controls or overpowers other colors or hues within the lifting process of haircoloring.
double-process process that includes fighting prelightening or decolorizing the hair with bleach then coloring with and oxidation tint or toner.
drab a term used to describe ash, cool, or blue tones that neutralize unwanted warm tones.
fade the loss of color intensity and depth.
filler temporary replacement of lost pigment for overporous hair before the application of tint formula.
food and drug administration(FDA) federal agency that regulates materials used in haircoloring.
gold bands undesirable brassy or gold tones that occur when hair is not lightened long enough.
hair shaft term used to describe the portion of each strand of hair that lies between 1/2 inch out from the scalp up to any porous ends.
henna a vegetable dye that originated in asia centuries ago. a coating dye
humectants a chemical or substance in hair products helping the hair to retain moisture (water).
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) common oxidizing substance mixed with hair tint that develops the hair color and causes oxidation.
keratin the strong, fibrous, insoluble protein that comprises approximately 95% of the hair shaft.
humectants a chemical or substance in hair products helping the hair to retain moisture (water).
law of color the primary colors and how they combine to make all other color.
hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) common oxidizing substance mixed with hair tint that develops the hair color and causes oxidation.
keratin the strong, fibrous, insoluble protein that comprises approximately 95% of the hair shaft.
law of color the primary colors and how they combine to make all other color.
level exact measurement that determines the degree of light or dark in each color. use 10 levels to determine color formulas.
lift removing, subtracting, or lightening color from the hair.
level system system of permanent haircoloring using levels of color as a standard.
lift removing, subtracting, or lightening color from the hair.
line of demarcation the line of regrowth between colored hair and natural.
lightening process of removing or subtracting pigment from the hair.
melanin natural pigment of the hair, most of which is usually found in the cortex.
line of demarcation the line of regrowth between colored hair and natural.
melanin natural pigment of the hair, most of which is usually found in the cortex.
metallic dyes dyes that are made from metallic salts. they coat the hair and are progressive, getting increasingly dark and coated.
molecules groups of atoms joined by chemical bonds.
multiporous hair that has more than one porosity within the strand.
*oxidation reaction occurring when permanent tints are mixed with hydrogen peroxide, determined by the volume of H2O2 used,can also be dictated by the percentage of NH3 in a formula.
*oxidative dyes colorless intermediate molecules that develop into a color on mixing with hydrogen peroxide.
para-phenol pigments a coal tar of aniline derivative most often found in hair color and responsible for the pigmentation.
para-phenylenediamine(PPD) the basic, original aniline derivative used in single-process haircoloring.
permanent hair color synthetic or organic dye that penetrates into the cortex of the hair and does not wash out.
pH refers to the degree of alkalinity or acidity of a solution. neutral (water) is 7; anything below is acid; above is alkaline.
permanent hair color synthetic or organic dye that penetrates into the cortex of the hair and does not wash out.
porosity the hair's ability to absorb liquid of moisture.
pH refers to the degree of alkalinity or acidity of a solution. neutral (water) is 7; anything below is acid; above is alkaline.
porous describes condition of cuticle when it is raised and open, allowing moisture and liquid to absorb.
powdered bleach and alkaline product generally used in off-the -scalp bleach,which has less moisturizers in the formula.
predisposition test a skin test that determines sensitivity of allergy to a products chemicals.
porous describes condition of cuticle when it is raised and open, allowing moisture and liquid to absorb.
prelighten first remove excess pigment from the hair. two-step coloring, usually means lifting to one level lighter than target color.
powdered bleach and alkaline product generally used in off-the -scalp bleach,which has less moisturizers in the formula.
presoften prepares resistant hair for better penetration of the hair color formula.
primary colors refers to the three basic colors of the color wheel, red, yellow,and blue.
progressive tint any hair dye that continues processing until removed, or gets darker with each application.
repigmentizing the same as filler.
rinses temporary colors that coat the cuticle of the hair and normally do not penetrate the cortex.
presoften prepares resistant hair for better penetration of the hair color formula.
secondary colors colors created when pairs of primaries are mixed.
shade the degree of lightness and dark; it takes approximately three shades equal one level.
primary colors refers to the three basic colors of the color wheel, red, yellow,and blue.
shade system the system of permanent haircoloring using shade or tones, hues as its standard for categorizing.
single-process haircoloring procedure that lifts and deposits in one application.
soap cap diluting remaining color formula with shampoo to prevent ends darkening with end application.
strand test a sample formula applied to a small portion of the hair to check expected results.
target color the desired end result of color.
tertiary color color created when a primary is mixed with its neighboring secondary.
theory scientific information that is supposed to work.
tonal value the value assigned to color that allows for description and distinction from another.
tone on tone (TNT) corresponding tones used for tinting in layers of color. creating by layering lightening formula over deposit color in random streaks or with foils.
repigmentizing the same as filler.
rinses temporary colors that coat the cuticle of the hair and normally do not penetrate the cortex.
secondary colors colors created when pairs of primaries are mixed.
shade the degree of lightness and dark; it takes approximately three shades equal one level.
shade system the system of permanent haircoloring using shade or tones, hues as its standard for categorizing.
single-process haircoloring procedure that lifts and deposits in one application.
soap cap diluting remaining color formula with shampoo to prevent ends darkening with end application.
strand test a sample formula applied to a small portion of the hair to check expected results.
target color the desired end result of color.
tertiary color color created when a primary is mixed with its neighboring secondary.
theory scientific information that is supposed to work.
tonal value the value assigned to color that allows for description and distinction from another.
tone on tone (TNT) corresponding tones used for tinting in layers of color. creating by layerin lightening formu
vegetable dyes color derived from plant sources.
warm zone (HOT ROOTS) the area of the hair shaft that develops tint more easily, within 1/2 inch of the scalp and body heat.