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Bio Psyc - Chpt 2

What are neurons? Neurons, or nerve cells, are the most important part of the nervous system.
What cell type provides support for neurons? Glial cells provide support for neurons.
What is the Neuron doctrine and what does it state? Neuron doctrine states that: •The brain is composed of independent cells. •Information is transmitted from cell to cell across synapses.
What structures do neurons have in common with other cells? •Mitochondria–produce energy •Cell nucleus–contains genetic instructions •Ribosomes–translate genetic instructions into proteins
What are the four zones of a neuron? Input zones, integration zones, conduction zones, and output zones.
What is an input zone? Input zone–receives information from other cells through dendrites
What is an integration zone? Integration zone–cell body (or soma) region where inputs are combined and transformed
What is a conduction zone? Conduction zone–single axon leads away from the cell body and transmits the electrical impulse
What is an output zone? Output zone–axon terminals at the end of the axon communicate activity to other cells
What is a Golgi stain? Golgi stains fill the whole cell, including details, but only stain a small proportion of neurons.
What are fluorescent molecule injections? Fluorescent molecule injections give a similar result. Fill the whole cell, including details, but only stain a small proportion of neurons.
What are Nissl stains? Nissl stains outline all cell bodies because the dyes are attracted to RNA, which encircles the nucleus.
What are 4 techniques for visualizing structures in the brain? •Golgi stains •Nissl stains •Autoradiography •Immunocytochemistry
What is immunocytochemistry? Immunocytochemistry can detect a protein in tissue: –An antibody binds to the protein. –Chemical treatments make the antibody visible
What is in situ hybridization? •In situ hybridization uses complementary radioactive probes to find neurons with a specific mRNA sequence.
What are immediate early genes? Immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-fos are expressed when cells first become active.
What does situ hybridization involve? (list the 3 steps) •A short sequence of DNA is marked with a radioactive isotope (radioprobe) •Exposure of the radioprobe to brain slices •Cells containing the homologous sequence of the radioprobe be marked
What is autoradiography? •Autoradiography shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues.
What is anterograde labeling? Anterograde labeling uses radioactive molecules taken up by the cell and then transported to the axon tips.
What is retrograde labeling? Retrograde labeling uses horseradish peroxidase (HRP)–it is taken up in the axon terminals and transported to the cell bodies, then visualized through chemical reactions.
What 3 neurons are labeled according to their size? •Multipolar neurons–one axon, many dendrites–most common type •Bipolar neurons–one axon, one dendrite (visual sistem) •Monopolar neurons–a single extension branches in two directions, forming a receptive pole and an output zone (somatosensory system)
What are motoneurons? •Motoneurons (motor neurons) stimulate muscles or glands.
What are sensory neurons? •Sensory neurons respond to environmental stimuli, such as light, odor, or touch.
What are interneurons? •Interneurons receive input from and send input to other neurons.
What are astrocytes? •Astrocytes–star-shaped cells with many processes that receive neuronal input and monitor activity
What are microglial cells? •Microglial cells, or microglia–small cells that remove debris from injured cells
What is myelination? Myelination–the process in which glial cells wrap axons with a fatty sheath, myelin, to insulate and speed conduction
What are the Nodes of Ranvier? Nodes of Ranvier–gaps between sections of myelin where the axon is exposed
What are oligo dendrocytes? Oligodendrocytes are glial cells that form myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord (Central nervous system).
What are scwann cells? Schwann cells provide myelin to cells outside the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nervous system).
What is edema? What other cell type do they have influence over? Glial cells (astrocytes) respond to injury by edema, or swelling, and are also susceptible to tumors.
What receives information across synapses? The neuronal cell body and dendrites receive information across synapses.
What helps facilitate contacts between dendrites? Dendrites have a branched arborization pattern to facilitate contacts.
What neurons transmit information from one to another? Information is transmitted from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron.
What are the three components of a synapse? Presynaptic membranes, postsynaptic membranes, and synaptic clefts.
What is a presynaptic membrane? Presynaptic membrane–on the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron
What is a postsynaptic membrane? Postsynaptic membrane–on the dendrite or cell body of the postsynaptic neuron
What is a synatpic cleft? Synaptic cleft–a gap that separates the membranes
What are synaptic vesicles? small spheres in presynaptic axon terminals
What are contained within synaptic vesicles? neurotransmitter, a specialized chemical substance Neurotransmitters are released in response to electrical activity in the axon.
What are receptors? Receptors in the postsynaptic membrane are specialized proteins that react to a neurotransmitter.
What are dendritic spines? Dendritic spines are studded on the dendrites and increase surface area.
What does neural plasticity allow dendritic spines to do? The property of neural plasticity in dendritic spines allows their number and structure to be rapidly altered by experience.
What are the 3 parts of an axon? Axon hillock, axon collateral, and axonal transport.
What is an axon hillock? Axon hillock–a cone-shaped area of the cell body that gives rise to the axon
What is an axon collateral? Axon collateral–a branch of an axon that also ends in terminals and innervates other cells
What is an axonal transport? Axonal transport–the movement of materials within an axon
What is gross neuroanatomy? Gross neuroanatomy–features of the nervous system visible to the naked eye.
What is the peripheral nervous system? The peripheral nervous system–all parts of the nervous system found outside the skull and spinal column
What is the central nervous system? The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord.
What are the 3 components of the peripheral nervous system? Cranial nerves, spinal (somatic) nerves, and autonomic nervous system.
What are nerves? Bundles of axons
What are cranial nerves? They controlled sensory and motor functions.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? Spinal nerves or somatic nerves–31 pairs
What are spinal nerves made of? •Dorsal (back) root–carries sensory information from the body to the spinal cord •Ventral (front) root–carries motor information from the spinal cord to the muscles
What are the 5 spinal nerves connected to the spinal cord? Cervical, thoratic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal.
What neurons are located outside the CNS? autonomic ganglia
What runs from the CNS to the autonomic ganglia? Preganglionic neurons
What runs from the autonomic ganglia to targets in the body? Postganglionic neurons
What are the 3 major divisions of the autonomic nervous system? •Sympathetic nervous system •Parasympathetic nervous system •Enteric nervous system
What is the autonomic nervous system? It mainly deals with internal organs and other involuntary parts of the body
What is the sympathetic nervous system? Has preganglionic neurons only in the spinal cord–they innervate the sympathetic chain, which runs along each side of the spinal column Sympathetic activation prepares the body for action.
What is the parasympathetic nervous system? Has preganglionic neurons that arise in the cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord Parasympathetic activation is often in opposition to sympathetic activity.
What 2 types of transmitters are used within the nervous system? Sympathetic neurons produce norepinephrine or noradrenaline to accelerate activity. Parasympathetic neurons produce acetylcholine.
What is the central nervous system made up of? Central nervous system: •Consists of brain and spinal cord •The brain is dominated by two cerebral hemispheres. •The cerebral cortex
What is the cerebral cortex? •The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres.
What are the 2 colors of brain tissue? •White matter–consists mostly of axons with white myelin sheaths •Gray matter–contains more cell bodies and dendrites, which lack myelin
What are the 3 planes of the brain? •Sagittal plane–bisects the brain into right and left halves •Coronal plane–divides the brain into front (anterior) and back (posterior) regions •Horizontal plane–divides the brain into an upper and lower part
What are the different ways in which the brain may be divided? (Name 5) •Medial–towards the middle Lateral–towards the side •Ipsilateral–same side Contralateral–opposite side •Anterior or rostral–head end Posterior or caudal–tail end •Proximal–near the center Distal–toward the periphery
What are the names of the ways in which information flows within the brain? •Afferent–carries information into a region of interest •Efferent–carries information away from a region of interest
What are the developmental subdivisions of the brain? Neural tube–develops three subdivisions, the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain The forebrain later develops into the telencephalon and the diencephalon, followed by the mesencephalon (midbrain).
What are the names of the subdivisions of the hindbrain? •Metencephalon, which becomes the cerebellum and pons •Myelencephalon, called the medulla
What is the brainstem? •Brainstem–refers to the cerebellum, pons, and medulla
What are the two types of neurons and axons within the CNS? Nucleus–a collection of neurons Tract–a bundle of axons
What is the basal ganglia? •The basal ganglia, important in motor control
What are the 4 nuclei within the basal ganglia? –The caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus under the cerebral cortex –The substantia nigra, in the midbrain
What function does the limbic system serve? It includes structures important for learning and memory.
What does the amygdala do? •Amygdala–emotional regulation and perception of odor
What does the hippocampus and fornix do? Manages learning
What does the cingulate gyrus handle? Attention
What does the olfactory bulb handle? Sense of smell
What parts of the limbic system are found within the diencephalon? •The thalamus–a cluster of nuclei that relay sensory information •The hypothalamus–contains nuclei with many functions–also controls the pituitary •Mamillary bodies
What are the midbrain sensory systems? Superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, and tectum.
What does the superior colliculi do? Processes visual information
What does the inferior colliculi do? Processes auditory information
What are the superior and inferior colliculi called when grouped together? Tectum
What are the midbrain motor systems? Substantia nigra and red nucleus
What is the substantia nigra? Part of the basal ganglia
What is the red nucleus? communicates with motoneurons in the spinal cord
What does the cerebellum do? involved in motor coordination and learning
What are the 3 layers of the cerebellum? •Granule cell layer–cells send axons to form parallel fibers in the outermost, or molecular, layer •Purkinje cell layer–the middle layer, its cells form a single row
What are pons? The pons is attached to the cerebellum and contains motor and sensory nuclei and gives rise to cranial nerves.
What is the medulla? The medulla contains cranial nerve nuclei and marks the transition from brain to spinal cord.
How many layers are there within the neocortex/isocortex? How are they distinguished? Neocortex, or isocortex, more simply called cortex, has six distinct layers. Cortical layers are distinguished by: •Type of neuron •Pattern of dendrites or axons
How many layers are within the allocortex? Three
What are pyramidal cells? Pyramidal cells are the most prominent neurons in cerebral cortex. •Pyramid-shaped cell body in layer III or V •Apical dendrite extends to outermost cortex •Basal dendrites spread horizontally from cell body
What are neurons organized as within the cortex? Neurons in the cortex are organized into cortical columns.
What are the 3 membranes the brain and spinal cord are surrounded with? •Dura mater–tough outermost sheet •Pia mater–delicate innermost layer •Arachnoid membrane–lies between the other two, is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
What is the ventricular system? A series of chambers filled with CSF
What are the 2 main functions of the CSF? •Acts as a shock absorber •Provides an exchange medium between blood and brain
What is the lateral ventricle? The lateral ventricle in each hemisphere extends into all four lobes and is lined with the choroid plexus,
What is the choroid plexus? a membrane that produces CSF. CSF flows into the
Where does the CSF flow within the brain? CSF flows into the third ventricle at the midline, then into the fourth ventricle where it exits to circulate over the brain and spinal cord.
What are the major arteries within the brain? Carotid arteries?
What does the internal carotid artery branch into? The internal carotid artery branches into anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
Where do the vertebral arteries enter? Vertebral arteries enter the skull and form the basilar artery, which gives rise to the posterior cerebral arteries.
What is formed by the major cerebral arteries? The circle of Willis is a structure formed by the major cerebral arteries.
What is a stroke? Stroke is caused by the rupture or blockage of blood vessels, leading to insufficient blood supply.
What is the blood-brain barrier a result of? The blood-brain barrier is the result of higher resistance in brain capillaries that restricts passage of large molecules.
What is an angiogram? Angiogram–X-ray of head with dye present in cerebral blood vessels.
What is a computerized axial tomography? (CAT or CT) a measure of X-ray absorption at several positions around the head, maps tissue density
What is magentic resonance imaging? (MRI) What 3 steps does it involve? gives higher resolution images in three steps: •Strong magnets cause protons in brain tissue to line up in parallel. •A pulse of radio waves knocks protons over. •Protons reconfigure themselves, emitting radio waves that differ by tissue density.
What is positron emission tomography? (PET) Positron emission tomography (PET)–gives images of brain activity: •Uses radioactive chemicals injected into the bloodstream and maps their destination by the radioactive emissions •Identifies which brain regions contribute to specific functions
What is a functional MRI (fMRI)? detects small changes in brain metabolism, such as oxygen use, in active brain areas. fMRI can show how networks of brain structures collaborate.
What is optical imaging? Optical imaging uses near-infrared light passed through the skull to reveal brain activity.
What is transcranial magnetic stimulation? (TMS) Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) briefly stimulates discrete cortical regions with magnets.
What is magnetoencephalography? (MEG) Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measures the tiny magnetic fields given off by active neurons.
Created by: jacobsullivan91