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Spec Topic

Most common type of blood type in felines: A
Purebred feline blood types are usually: B
Feline blood types: A, B, A/B
__ is the universal recipient bld type for cats A/B
Cats have no ____ donor : universal donor
Feline donor requirements: 10#>, neutered, vax, PCV ~35%
Feline donor can provide ___ml of blood every 4-5 weeks : 60ml
Blood transfusions are done at a rate of ___ then increased up to___ *1ml/kg/15-20min *22ml/kg/hr
Blood transfusions are given for no longer than __hrs : 4HRS
Ace can cause ___ Hypolension /Low BP
The most common anticoagulant system is___ given at _: *ACD *1ml ACD/9ml blood
Greyhounds and pit bulls are most common ___ donor : Universal donor
What are the 2 types of collection systems? Closed system and open system
Giving the wrong blood type will cause : Intravascular hemolysis
A PCV can remain normal for __hrs after acute bld loss and do not indicate ___: 6hrs *Transfusion
Indications for blood transfusions : Severe blood loss, chronic anemia, coagulation defects, autoimmune hemolytic anemia
The most common k-9 blood type is ___ and considered universal ___: *1.1+ *recipient
K-9 universal donor types are: 1.1 –
k-9 universal recipient type : 1.1 +
k-9 universal donor type: 1.1-
_% of dogs are either DEA __ or __ *60% *1.1+/1.2+
Major crossmatching: Recpt serum to donor RBC’s
Minor crossmatch: Donor serum to Recpt Rbc’s
K-9 donor requirements: 55#> , 1-8yrs ,PCV40%,
Donor must be tested for Reckettsial diseases every __ months : 6 months
Whole blood is : less than 8 hours
Purpose of a blood transfusion: Provide increase O2
K-9 RBC lifespan: 110 days
Feline RBC lifespan: 70 days
a unit of blood is : 250ml
Coagulopathy, severe life threating bleeding: Plasma
actively bleeding, accute hemorrhage: Whole blood
Stored whole blood: >8 hours up to 30 days: contains plasma protein only
Fresh frozen plasma: >12 months , has all clotting factors
Fresh plasma: albumin/stabile factors
Plasma contains all clotting factors except___ Plt's
Plt rich plasma is harvest from: fresh whole blood less than 8 hours old
k-9 donor formula: Lean # in kg X 99=
Fel donor formula: Lean # in kg X 66=
Generally __% of a donors blood can be collected 10% : kg x 99 x .10
Leukemia and Hypoproteinemia do not require ___ Transfusions
Fast heart beat: Tachycardia
Too slow heart beat: Bradycardia
Irritable heart rate: Premature
Absent heart beat: Block
Irregular heart beat: Arrhythmia
Normal heart beat: Normal sinus rhythm
Increase in HR during inspiration and decrease in HR during exhalation: Sinus arrhythmia
True or False:Sinus arrhythmia's are Normal in dogs True
A normal ECG paper speed is: 25-50mm/sec
What are the 2 conductors used for electrodes? Alcohol or ultrasound gel
Normal heart rate for dogs: 70-160 BPM
Normal heart rate for felines: 150-210 BPM
Sinus Bradycardia : K-9: >45#- HR<60 BPM Fel:100 BPM or less
Sinus tachycardia can be caused by: pain, fever, anemia, excitement,hyperthyroidism
Rapid, irregular, unsynchronized contraction of heart muscle: Fibrillation
___ is manual atrial depolarization Defibrillation
If a P wave is not seen on ECG it may be a sign of: PCV:Premature ventricular complexes
If no P OR QRS is seen on ECG it may be a sign of: Ventricular fibrillation
A normal sinus rhythm followed by a prolonged failure of the SA node: Sinus arrest
_____ are used in cases of delayed beats known as sinus arrest Pace maker
First degree Av block: Consistent delay between P and Q interval
Second degree Av block: Missing QRS and gradual lengthening in P-R interval
Third degree Av block No relation between P wave and QRS complex
___ is known as dropped beats (gradual lengthening of P-R interval) Sencond Deg AV block Type 1
___ is known as multiple dropped beats (Consistent P-R intervals) Second Deg AV block type 2
No electrical activity, no cardiac output: Asystole:l;flat line
Medications of choice for Asystole are ____ and ___ Epinephrine and Atropine
Pathway of impulse thru the heart: SA node, AV noded, Bundle of his, L/R bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
Depolarization is ___ and Repolarization is ___ *Contraction *Relaxation
5 Physiologic properties of the cardiac muscle: *Automaticity *Excitability *Refractoriness *Conductivity *Contractility
___ follows the "All Or Nothing " law Excitability
Heart contractions are a result of ___ and ___ Depolarization and Re-polarization
Graphic recording of electrical potentials: Electrocardiogram
A wave that arises from a source other than the heart: Artifact
Any electrical activity that differs from the normal: Cardiac Arrhythmia
Electrode/wire placement: above the stifle skin and on the elbow skin
Patient connected to an ECG machine should be in ___ or ___ position R/lateral recumbency or Standing
02 levels should always be above __% 95
ECG Lead order: R/F:White L/F:Black L/R:Red R/R:Green
Upward deflection ____ electrode Downward deflection ___ electrode *Positive *Negative
The P wave reflects the: SA node: atrial contraction
The Q Represents: Atrial depolarization
R represents: AV node: Ventricle contraction
S represents: Repolarization:relaxed ventricle
T represents: Resting period
2 wound categories: *Intentional *Non-intentional
Sx is a form of a _____ wound and Trauma or self-infliction is a form of a ____ wound *Intentional *non-intentional
Disrupts normal skin integrity: Wound
Wound healing begins____ immediately
Phases of wound healing: *Inflammation *Debridment *repair *maturation
Plt's initiate healing though release of _____ Growth factors
During Inflammation: Blood vessels constriction for 5-10 min, then dilate to release clotting factors
Debridement phase is the removal of ____ and occurs _____ hours after injury *necrotic tissue *6 hours
Exudate includes: WBC's and fluid
Wound strength is __in the first 3-_ days *minimal *3-5
Inflammation + debridment = Lag phaase
Repair phase occurs ___- days after injury and lasts ___ days *3-5days *17-20 days
New epithelium forms ___ days post injury if sutured ____ hrs of the injury *4-5 days *24-48 hours
wound contraction occurs within ___ days 5-9
maturation is the ______ of collegen fibers to increase ____ *cross linking *strength
It takes __ hrs for a blood clot to form,__ days for repair and __ yrs for a scar to completely form *6 hrs *17-20days *1-2yrs
After a scar forms the skin will be to __% normal 80%
_____ is cushings dz and ____ is addisons Dz *HYPERadrenocortism *HYPOadrenocortism
___ ___ and ___ are all commonly used drugs that prolong healing Aspirin, corticosteriods, NSAIDS
Types of wound healing: 1st, 2nd and 3rd intention
1st intention: Suture wound
2nd Intention: Leave wound open
3RD Intention: Leave wound open initially and then suture at a later time
___ and ___ act as FB and delay healing Creams and powders
You can use __ to temporarily close a wound in clinic while prepping. Towel clamps
Warm ____ or ___ are used to lavage wounds Sterile saline or electrolyte solution
___, __, and ___ are never added to flushing solutions Soap, detergent, or Antibiotics
A water pick or __ml syringe __g needle can be used to lavage a wound *35ml *19g
Refreshment/excise of edges is known as: En bloc
Removal of affected tissue in layers is known as: Layered removal
Solutions that contain Trypsin are known as a form of _____ debridement and are a ___ method *enzymatic *slow
Sugar, honey and saline are all forms of ___ solutions that should be used ___ tissue is present *Hypertonic *granulation
Types of wound closures: *Primary *delayed primary *contraction/epithelialization *Secondary closure
Primary wound closure is __ intention healing and is also called____ *1st *Appositional healing
Primary closure is the ___ where a wound is still considered clean is ___ hrs after injury *Golden period *6-8
Delayed closure is ___ days after injury and before ___ tissue is formed *1-3 days *granulation
Contraction and epithelialization is the _____ tissue ___ intention healing *adhesion of granulation tissue *2nd intention
Deglovings are common in ___ injuries and will heal by ___ intention *HBC *2nd intension
Secondary wound closures are sutured at ___ days when _____will not completely close the wound *3-5 Days *epithelial & contraction
Secondary wound closure is __ intention healing 3rd intention
In wound with questionable ____ or ___ should remain open Blood supply or Dead space
Disturbance of epidermis or exposure of deep dermis: Abrasion
Bandaging must include: *Semiocclusive primary layer *change every 3-4 days *maintained until cover with epithelial tissue
Sharp incised edges: Laceration
Tissue that is torn away: Avulsion
Lacerations are still considered clean and can be sutured within ___ hours with ____ *12hrs *debridment
If there is questionable blood supply you should: Leave the wound open
survival rate of a burn victim with >50% is _____ rare
1st degree burn: Superficial epidermis
2nd degree burn: all layers of the dermis, blisters
3rd degree burn: Full thickness/ all layers/leathery
4th Degree burns: full thickness/ involves dermis/ SQ and muscle
Metabolic intake of burn victim may increase up to __% 200%
____ is the key to avoiding decubital sores, by turning the patient every ___ hr *Prevention *4
What gauge needle is used for a cystocentesis and what length? 22 k-9 *25g Fel *1-1 ½ inch
Types of urine collection: voided(free catch), catheterization, cystocentesis
What position can you collect a cysto in a k-9? Standing, lateral recumbancy, dorsal recumbancy
What position are cats in cysto collection? lateral recumbancy
At what angle do you insert your needle with dorsal recumbancy? 45 deg Cranial to caudal
Do you have to aseptically prep your cysto site? No
Created by: brit_2112
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