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Behavioral Psych

Quiz 2

Contiguity The temporal relation between the CS and the US. A high level of contiguity make a stronger CR when coupled with high contingency
Contingency How well the CS predicts the occurance of the US. High level of predictability coupled with high contingency produces a stronger CR
Rescorla-Wagner concept on each trial the CS gains associative strength however the amount of assoc. strength gained decreases with each successive trial until the maximum association is reached
Rescorla-Wagner model deltaV=S[Vmax-(V-Vsum)]; change in assoc. strength = salience of CS[the max AS value - ( current level of AS -the sum of AS for any other CS present)]
Waston & Raynor's Little Albert Experiment conditioned fear by pairing touching a rat (CS) with a loud noise (US) which led to the startle and crying (CR) the new response to the rat was called a conditioned emotional response (CER)
Systematic Desensitization create hierarchy of fear; establish relaxation technique; pair relaxation and fear while moving up the hierarchy
Flooding expose organism to fear until they calm down
Why Sys. Desense. & flooding work exposure without negative consequences
Cravings repeated pairing of drug (CS) and sypmtome (US) create strong CR which is opposite of UR so more drug is needed to counteract the CR effect
Tolerance body can deal with high doses because of strong CR
Withdrawal Stopping use eliminates UR but the CR remains
Overdose Experiment built tolerance in two groups of rats; gave twice normal amount to one group in same cage as usual and twice amount to one group in different cage; different cage rats died because there was a lack of CR to oppose UR
Emitted behavior voluntary and not entirely dependant on the presentation of stimuli
Elicited Behavior involuntary and entirely based on presentation of the stimuli
Discriminative stimulus Sd: reliably occurs before behavior and signals the availability of consequence; Sdelta signals that consequence is not available but comes before behavior
Operant Class a variety of behaviors that result in the same consequence
Operant behavior behavior that operates on its environment to produce consequences
Reinforcement causes increase in behavior
Punishment Causes decrease in behavior
Positive adds stimulus
Negative subtracts stimulus
Positive Reinforcement Sd: R -> Sr+ ; behavior reinforced by adding stimuli
Positive Punishment Sd: R -> Sr- ; behavior reduced by adding adversive stimuli
Negative Reinforcement Sd: R -> Sr+; behavior reinforced by subtracting adversive stimuli
Negative Punishment Sd: R -> Sr-; behavior decreased by subtracting stimuli
Extinction Removal of reinforcer will cause decrease in behavior
Extinction burst small temporary increase in rate of operant behavior immediately after extinction begins
Operant Variability new versions of operant emerge or previously reinforced operant return
Partial Reinforcement Effect behaviors that are reinforced consistently will extinguish faster than behaviors that are reinforced intermittently because discrimination between reinforcement and extinction becomes more difficult to make
Shaping target behavior, begin reinforcing behaviors that can lead to target; extinct old behaviors
Created by: alexamareschal
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