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bkx MUS101 P1

MUS-101 Part #1: The Basics

Music Sound organized in time
Melody (2 definitions) 1) A series of notes which add up to form a recognizable whole, or 2) A coherent succession of single pitches
4 Aspects of Melody Range, shape, motion, articulation
Range Distance between the highest and lowest notes of a melody
Shape Static, arch, rising/falling line, wave
Motion How the melody moves from one note to the next
2 Types of Motion Conjunct: Moves in stepwise fashion; Disjunct: Moves mostly by leaps
Articulation Staccato vs. legato
4 Elements of Melodic Structure Motive, phrase, cadence, rhyme scheme
Motive Smallest recognizable unit of a melody
Phrase A larger structure, analogous to a sentence in spoke language
Cadence A resting point at the end of a phrase
2 Types of Cadence Full cadence: Sounds complete; Half cadence: Sounds incomplete
Rhythm The flow of music through time
Beat Regular pulse dividing music in to equal parts
Tempo Speed of the beat
3 Words for Changing Tempo Accelerando: Getting gradually faster; Ritardando: Getting gradually slower; A tempo: Returning to the original tempo
Meter The organization of beats into distinguishable patterns
Measure Unit separated by barlines that contain a specific number of beats
Time Signature Two numbers at the beginning of a piece of music, one on top of the other, that tell how many beats are in each measure and what kind of note equals one beat
3 Types of Simple Meters Duple, triple, quadruple (these refer to the number of beats per measure: 2, 3 and 4)
Simple Meter "Simple" refers to the fact that each beat can be broken into two notes
Compound Meter "Compound" refers to the fact that each beat can be broken into three notes (compound meters will always involve dotted notes)
Additive Meter "Additive" refers to the fact that the beats can be subdivided into smaller, irregular groups
Syncopation Accent on an unexpected beat
Polyrhythm Two or more concurrent divisions of the same beat
Harmony "The vertical dimension"
Consonance A sound of rest or repose
Dissonance An active, unsettled sound
Harmonic Interval The distance between two notes that sound together
Chord Three or more notes sounding together
Triad A particular kind of chord made up alternate notes of scale
Progression A series of chords
3 Types of Chords Tonic (I), subdominant (IV) and dominant (V)
2 Types of Harmonic Cadences Authentic (V-I), Plagal (IV-I)
Tonic Note "Keynote" - The central note in a piece
Scale A grouping of notes that focuses attention to the tonic
Modulation The change from one key to another within a piece or movement
Texture Refers to the layers of sound and how they interact
4 Types of Texture Monophonic, heterophonic, homophonic, polyphonic
Monophonic One voice (sound)
Heterophonic Two or more voices simultaneously ornamenting the same melody
Homophonic One primary voice (melody) accompanied by subordinate voices
Polyphonic Simultaneous performance of 2 or more voices of equal or near equal interest
2 Ways to Describe Texture "Thick" or "thin" depending on how many voices are involved and their level of activity
Dynamic Volume
2 Types of Changing Dynamics Crescendo (getting louder) and decrescendo (getting softer)
ff Fortissimo
f Forte
mf Mezzo-forte
mp Mezzo-piano
p Piano
pp Pianissimo
3 Vocal Ranges for Women Soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto
3 Vocal Ranges for Men Tenor, baritone, bass
4 Categories of Instruments Aerophones, chordophones, idiophones, membranophones
4 Categories of Instruments in a Contemporary Western Orchestra Strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion
Form The structure of music as it plays out in time
2 Constructs to Help Define Form Repetition, contrast, variation
Purpose of Repetition Binds the composition together
Purpose of Contrast Changes moods and moves the music forward
2 Common Forms Binary (A B) & Ternary (A B A)
Created by: bamkapowxo