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Mod 4 Week 1,2,3,4

PT review Final

the substance resulting from the body's transformation of an administered drug. metabolite
the blood concentration needed for a drug to produce a response. minimum effective concentration (MEC)
the upper limit of the theraputic window. minimum toxic concentration
the functional unit of the kidney. nephron
the time MEC is reached and the response occurs. onset of action
teh movement of drugs from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration. passive diffusion
drug products that contain the same active ingredient but no necessarily in the same salt form, amount, or dosage form. pharmaceutical alternative
the attachment of a drug molecule to a protein, effectively making the drug inactive. protein binding
the cellular material which interacts with the drug. receptor
the characterististic of a drug that makes its actin specific to certain receptors. selective (action)
the location where an administered drug produces an effect. site of action
pharmaceutical equivalents that produce the same effects in patients. therapeutic equivalent
a drug's blood concentration range between its MEC and MTC. therapeutic window
The place where a drug causes an effect to occur is called the? site of action
When a drug produces an effect, it is actin at a/an_________level? site of action
An agtagonist will? molecular
In a blood concentration-time curve, the range between the minimum toxic concentration(MTC) and the minimum effective concentration (MEC) is called the ? physical action, such as a protective onitment,chemical action, such as an antacid neutralizing acidity, osmotic actin, such as moving water out of tissues into blood.
The time a drug's blood concentration is above the MTC is called the? prevent other drugs from binding to a receptor.
When studying concentration and effect, the ________is the time MEC is reached and the response occurs. therapeutic window
Which drug would not typically be monitored with peak and trough blood concentrations? none of the above.
If the blood concentration-time profile relects the amount of drug at the site of action,the maximum therapeutic response would occur when? onset of action
The transfer of a drug out of a dosage form and into the blood is called? promethazine
If the blood concentration-time profile relects the amount of drug at the site of action,the maximum therapeutic response would occur when? at the peak blood concentration
The transfer of a drug out of a dosage form and into the blood is called? absorption
Where are receptors located? Receptors are located on the surfaces of cell membranes and inside cells.
What is "Site of Action"? The location where an administered drug produces an effect.
"AGONISTS VS ANTAGONIST" Receptor that "ACTIVATE"? AGONISTS are drugs that "ACTIVE" receptors to accelerate or slow normal cellular function.
"AGONISTS VS ATAGONIST 2" Receptors that "DO NOT ACTIVATE" ANTAGONISTS bind to cell receptors, but DO NOT ACTIVATE them.
"FAT"? "FAT" is the organ system expected to have lower blood concentration of the drug based on blood flow rates.
"DURATION OF ACTION" Time the drug should above the MED. Onset of Action. It is the time MEC is reached and the response occur.
"HOW DRUGS MOVE THROUGH THE BODY" "ABSORPTION" Process by which refers to the transfer of a drug into the blood from an administered drug product.
"HOW DRUGS MOVE THROUGH THE BODY 2" "METABOLISM" The body's process of transforming drugs.
"GASTRIC EMPTYING TIME"? The TIME a drug will stay in the stomach before e it is emptied into the small intestine.
"ABSORPTION 2" Intravenous administration does not have an ABSORPTION step.
"ABSORPTION 3" When gastric contents SLOWS DOWN, it will take longer to move through the bowel, therefore increasing absorption.
"ABSORPTION 4" Metabolizing enzymes in the GI tract wall will DECREASE absorption.
"ENZYMES"? Complex proteins that causes chemical reactions in other substances.
"ENZYMES INHIBITION"? Typically occurs in the liver.
"ENTEROHEPATIC CYCLING"? Involves the transfer of drugs, and their metabolites from the liver to the intestines, and then back into CIRCULATION.
"ENZYME INDUCTION"? The increase in ENZYMES activity that results in greater metabolism of drugs.
KIDNEYS The KIDNEYS filter the blood and remove waste materials including drugs and metabolites.
"BIOAVAILABILITY" The relative amount of an administered dose that reaches the general circulation and the rate at which it occurs
"BIOEQUIVALENT DRUG PRODUCTS" DRUGS PRODUCTS that contain identical amounts of the same active ingredients in the same dosage form, so they have same bioavailability.
"PHARMACEUTICAL ALTERNATIVE" Same active ingredient. Amounts can be different. Dosage form can be different. Inactive ingredient can be different.
"ORANGE BOOK" FDA? The FDA requires drug manufacturers to perform bioequvalency studies on their products before they are approved for marketing.
"MINIMUM EFFECTIVE CONCENTRATION"? The blood concentration needed of a drug to produce a response.
"PASSIVE DIFFUSION"? Is the most common way an orally administered drug is distributed through the body.The movement
"PASSIVE DIFFUSION 2"? The movement of drugs from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration.
"SELECTIVE ACTION"? The characteristic of a drug that makes its action specific to certain receptors and the tissues they effect.
BINDING Drugs BIND to may proteins in blood and tissue.
Essential Elements of a Prescription Patients full name. Date of prescription, route of administration, amount of drug to be administered.
Prescription Abbreviations STAT? Immediately
Problematic Abbreviations Ug? microgram or mcg
Correct Drug Administration "right" The "right" for correct drug administration? right patient. right drug. right strength. right route. right time.
Correct Drug Administration "right" 2 right patient? patient's name with at least 2 patient identifiers.
Correct Drug Administration "right" 3 right drug? always check the medication against the original prescription and the patient's disease state.
Correct Drug Administration "right" 4 check that the physician's order agrees with the drug's specified route of administration.
Correct Drug Administration "right" 5 right time? check prescription to determine appropriate time for medication to be administered.
Dosage forms and Routes of Administration? IV, SL, Rectal, and Buccal allows medication to enter the bloodstream directly.
Dosage forms and Routes of Administration 2? Peroral (oral by mouth) disadvantage of administrating is that it generally takes longer to become effective
Dosage forms and Routes of Administration 3? parental- offers quick absorption and rapid effect, disadvantage is if route is pain or infection, once injected there is no way to remove the drug, insulin should be given this way due to inactivation in the stomach.
Parental Dosage Routes IM? intramuscular in the muscles.
Parental Dosage Routes 2 IV? Intravenous in the veins.
Topical Dosage Routes Rectal? (used if nausea or vomiting). if IV not required or desired.
Special Considerations in Elderly Patients Many take numerous medication simultaneously (polypharmacy)
Special Considerations in Children Weight is most reliable guide to drug dosing for pediatric patients
Special Considerations in Children 2 preferred dosage for antibiotics is oral sol.
Immunity long term Immunity is usually maintained by the Memory B Cells
Human Variability Age The Elderly? lower cardiac output tends to slow the distribution of drugs.
Human Variability Gender? WOMEN and MEN handle drugs differently.
Human Variability 2 Genetics? Determines type and amounts of proteins produced in the body.
Human Variability 3 Pharmacognetics? Defines the study of the hereditary basis of individual difference.
Human Variability 4 Body Weight? Importance in dosing medication to children?
Human Variability 5 Psychological factors? Influences patients responses to drugs, e.g placebo effects can be due to these factors.
Diseases that affect drug disposition Cirrhosis? A chronic and potentially fatal liver disease causing loss of function and resistance to blood flow through the LIVER.
Diseases that affect drug disposition 2 Acute viral hepatitis? A systematic infection caused by a virus that causes inflammation of the LIVER.
Renal Diseases Drugs such as Ibuprofen? can cause renal failure
Thyroid Diseases Hypothyroidism? is a condition in which the thyroid hormone secretion is BELOW normal.
Thyroid Disease 2 Hyperthyroidism? Thyroid Disease is a condition in which the thyroid hormone secretions is ABOVE normal.
Common Adverse Drug Reactions idiosyncrasy? UNEXPECTED REACTION to a drug the first time it is taken. generally due to genetic course
Common Adverse Drug Reactions 2 Hepatotoxicity? toxic to the liver. Occurs with "APAP, (TYLENOL), ACETAMINOPHEN, ISONIAZIDE
Hypersensitive or Allergy Hypersensitivity? An abnormal SENSITIVITY generally resulting in an allergic reaction.
Hypersensitive or Allergy 2 Anaphylactic shock? potentially FATAL hypersensitivity reaction producing severe respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse.
Common Adverse Drug Reactions 3 Teratogenicity? the ability of a substance to cause abnormal fetal development when given to pregnant women. Thyroid
Common Adverse Drug Reactions 4 Hematological effect? e.g, Anticoagulants can cause excessive bleeding. BLOOD, coagulation, bleeding, and bone marrow disorder.
Common Adverse Drug Reactions 5 Carcinogenicity? Is the ability of a substance to cause cancer. Some ANTICANCER drugs are considered carcinogenic
Drug-Drug Interactions Addictive Effect? Occurs when two drugs with similar pharmacological actions are taken and the effect is equal to that of each drug take alone. the sum of the individual effects.
Drug-Drug Interactions 2 Potentiation? Occurs when one drug
Drug-Drug Interactions Occurs when two drugs with different sites or MECHANISMS of action produce greater effects when taken together than when take alone.
Drug-Drug Interactions 2 Antidote? A particular drug given that ANTAGONIZES the toxic effect of another drug.
Drug-Drug Interactions 3 Displacement? When one drug is MOVED from protein binding sites by a second drug and the result in increased effects of the displaced drug.
Drug-Drug Interactions 4 Inhibition? One drug BLOCKS the activity of metabolic enzymes in the liver.
Drug-Diet Interaction When elements of ingested NUTRIENTS interact with a drug affecting the disposition of the drug.
Terms to Remember MAO inhibitors? may interact with some foods may result in severe hypertension and intracraninal hemorrhage.
Terms to Remember 2 Heptic Disease also known as liver disease
Terms to Remember 3 2D6? occurs in the liver.
Terms to Remember 4 Physiological dependence When a patient gets unpleasant PHYSICAL withdrawal symptoms when a dose of a drug is discontinued or reduced.
Created by: clardy rodney



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