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Thinking Critically

Chapter 1 vocab and statements

What did Wilhelm Wundt accomplish in 1879? He created a machine to measure time lag between people's hearing a sound and reacting to it.
What was Wundt seeking to accomplish in 1879? He wanted to measure the "atoms of the mind." - fastest and simplest mental processes
What was Wilhelm Wundt's project in 1879 considered? It was considered psychology's first experiment.
What was launched after psychology's "first experiment?" The first psychological lab was launched.
Who staffed the first psychological lab? The lab was staffed by Wilhelm Wundt and the first psychology graduates.
What is humanistic psychology? Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
What is cognitive neuroscience? Cognitive neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (mental activity).
What is psychology? Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
What is the nature-nurture issue? The nature-nurture issue is the controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
What are the levels of analysis? The levels of analysis are the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
What is the biopsychosocial approach? The biopsychosocial approach is an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
What is basic research? Basic research is pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
What is applied research? Applied research is scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
What is the role of a counseling psychologist? Counseling psychologists help people cope with challenges and crises (academic, vocational, marital, etc.) and to improve their personal and social functioning.
What is the role of a clinical psychologist? Clinical psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
What is the role of a psychiatrist? Psychiatrists are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
What is hindsight bias? Hindsight bias is the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it.
What can hindsight bias and overconfidence lead us to? Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition.
What is critical thinking? Critical thinking is thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, but examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
What is a theory? A theory is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
What is a hypothesis? A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
What is an operational definition? An operational definition is a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
What is replication? Replication is repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
What is a case study? A case study is an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
How can case studies be misleading? Case studies can be misleading because unrepresentative information can lead to mistaken judgments and false conclusions.
What is a survey? A survey is a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group.
How do people usually conduct a survey? A survey is usually conducted by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
How do you get an accurate picture of a whole population's experience? For an accurate picture of a whole population's experience, there's only one game in town- a representative sample.
What is a population? A population is all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
What is a random sample? A random sample is a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
What do you do before accepting survey findings? Before accepting survey findings, think critically: Consider the sample.
What is naturalistic observation? Naturalistic observation is observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
What does naturalistic observation show for behavior? Naturalistic describes behavior, not explain it.
What can naturalistic observation provide? Naturalistic observation can provide data for correlational research.
What is correlation? Correlation is the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
What does positive correlation indicate? Positive correlation indicates a direct relationship and means two things increase together or decrease together.
What does negative correlation indicate? Negative correlation indicates an inverse relationship and means as one factor increases, the other decreases.
What does a correlation coefficient reveal? A correlation coefficient helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate.
What is illusory correlation? Illusory correlation is the perception of a relationship where none exists.
What does correlation indicate? Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but does not prove causation.
What is an experiment? An experiment is a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
What is random assignment? Random assignment is assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Why does an experiment manipulate its factor? Unlike correlational studies, which uncover naturally occurring relationships, an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect.
What is an experimental group? In an experiment, an experimental group is the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
What is a control group? In an experiment, a control group is the group that is not exposed to the treatment.
In an experiment, what does the control group serve as? The control group serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
What is the double-blind procedure? The double-blind procedure is an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
What is the placebo effect? The placebo effect is experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
What is the independent variable? The independent variable is the experimental factor that is manipulated.
What is the dependent variable? The dependent variable is the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
What is a culture? A culture is the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
What is SQ3R? SQ3R is a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, rehearse, review.
Created by: moore.daneisha
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