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RT 82 CT

Head Anatomy Cross Section CT Review

The central nervous system can be divided into which 2 main divisions? The brain & spinal cord
The solid spinal cord terminates at the level of the lower border of which vertebrae? What is this tapered area of the spinal cords called? L1. Conus Medullaris
The specialized cells of the nervous system that conduct electrical impulses are called what? What are the parts of these cells that receive electrical impulses called? Neurons. Dendrites
What are 3 meninges membrane layers that enclose the brain & spinal cord called (from outer to inner layer)? Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Pia Mater.
What is the space or potential space outside the Dura Mater? What is the narrow space containing a thin layer of fluid between the Dura Mater & Arachnoid? What is the wider space between the Arachnoid & Pia Mater that is filled with CSF? Epidural space. Subdural space. Subarachnoid space.
The large cerebrum is divided into Rt & Lt hemispheres. What are the 5 lobes that each hemisphere of the cerebrum is further divided into (with 4 lobes lying under cranial bones)? Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe & Insula (Central lobe).
What is the deep fissure that separates the Lt & Rt cerebral hemispheres called? What is the fold of Dura Mater that extends deep within this fissure called? Longitudinal fissure. The Falx Cerebri.
What is the name of the following frequently demonstrated raised areas (convulusions) on the anterior & posterior portion of the cerebral hemispheres? What is the frequently demonstrated groove in the central lateral area called? Anterior Gyrus, Central Sulcus, Posterior Gyrus.
What is the name of the arched mass of transverse fibers (white matter) that connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres? Corpus Callosum.
The CSF completely surrounds the brain & spinal cord by filling the space called what? A complete blockage of this space may result in what? The subarachnoid space. Hydrocephalus.
What is teh central midline portion of the brain connecting the Midbrain, Pons & Medulla to the spinal cord called? The brain stem
What does white matter consist of & is it outer/inner layer? What does gray matter consist of & is it outer/inner layer? myelinated axons & inner layer. Dendrites & cell bodies & outer layer.
Which aspect of the brain serves as an interpretation center for certain sensory impulses?brain stem? Thallamus
What are 3 abdominal organs not previously visualized radiographically until the invention of CT? Spleen, Pancreas, Liver
What are 3 diagnostic imaging modalities which utilize the visualization of anatomy in cross section? CT, MRI, PET (Nuclear Medicine)
What are 3 properties of a detector that control its effectiveness & efficiency? Size of the detector. Alignment with the tube. Type of material that receives radiation on the detector.
What are the 3 primary components of a CT system? Gantry, Operator Console, Computer
What devices replaced high tension cables in helical CT scanners? The slip ring
What was the primary difference between each generation of CT scanners? The # & the arrangement of the detectors
Which generation had 4800 or more detectors on a fixed ring & was the 1st type with fixed detectors rather than detectors rotating with an x-ray tube? 4th generation
Which generations have continuous volume scanning (CVS)& are capable of volume scanning? 3rd & 4th generation
Which generations have a 1 minute scan time for an entire exam? 4th generation & multislice scanner
Which generation scanner was 8x faster than a single second single slice scanner? Multislice scanner
Which generation scanner is capable of acquiring 4 or more slices simultaneously? Multislice scanner
Which generation scanner had a 1-2 detector scanner? Which scanner had scan times of 4 1/2 minutes oer slice? 1st generation scanner
What was the 1st scanner with fan shaped beam & 30 or more detectors? 2nd generation
wWhat are 4 advantages of CT over conventional x-ray? Visualization of anatomic structures w/no superimposition. Better contrast resolution between varying types of soft tissue. MPR (MultiPlaner Reconstruction). Manipulation of attenuation data.
Which generation contains a bank of up to 960 detectors? Which generation was the 1st to rotate a full 360 degrees around the patient. Which generation was the 1st w/large aperture permitting full body scanning? 3rd generation
Which pitch ratio leads to higher patient dose? Lower pitch ratio leads to higher patient dose
What is the formula for the pitch? Pitch = table movement per 360 degree rotation divided by collimation. Pitch = mm/sec divided by slice thickness
What is the pitch a relationship between? Table speed & slice thickness
What is pitch defined as? The amount of anatomy examined during a particular scan.
What are advantages of multislice technology? Shorter acquisition time. Decreased amount of contrast medium. Improved spatial resolution. Improved image quality.
What does the window level control in CT? Window level controls brightness. Window level determines the CT # that will be the center of the window width.
What does the window width control in CT? What does a wider window give? Window width controls the displayed image contrast. Window width controls the range of CT #'s displayed (How many shades of gray). A wider window = longer contrast.
What does the CT # indicate? The CT # indicates the amount of x-ray attenuation per pixel.
What is partial volume phenomenon? A type of CT artifact. A # given to a pixel that has 2 different densities with a huge difference.
What do detectors measure in a CT system? Attenuation of radiation by a given tissue/
Which of the following is 2D & which is 3D? Pixel (Picture Element) is 2D. Voxel (Volume Element) is 3D.
What do the following Hounsfeld units relate to & which shade of gray........ +1000, +45, +20, 0, -1000? +1000 Bone White, +45 White matter Light gray, +20 Blood Gray, 0 Water Baseline, -1000 Air Black.
What is the pre patient collimator? What does it control? The source collimator (in the tube). Controls the thickness of the slice.
What is the post patient collimator? Detector collimator (collimator in the detector). Absorbs scatter.
What type of contrast for a Lung Window? What type of contrast for a Mediastinal Window? Low contrast for lung window. High contrast for a mediastinal windows.
Created by: jamestkelley