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perception final

Motion after effect the illusion of a stationary object that occurs after prolonged exposure to a moving object
apparent motion the impression of smooth motion resulting from rapid alternation of objects. EG. cartoons, moving dots
correspondence problem problem faced by the motion detection system of knowing which feature in frame 2 corresponds to a particular feature in frame 1.
Middle temporal lobe area of brain thought to be most important in perception of motion
Who proved MT newsome and pare
interocular transfer transfer of an eye effect from one to the other
first order motion defined by changes in luminance
second order motion object that is defined by changes in contrast of texture
smooth pursuit type of eye movement in which the eyes move smoothly to follow a moving object.
Supper colliculus a structure in the midbrain that is important in initiating and guiding eye movements
three types of eye movements smooth pursuit, vergence, saccades
saccadic supression in between eye shift, you blank out
comparator an area of the visual sys that received one copy of the order issued by the motor system when the eye moves. can compensate for the image changes caused by eye movement. tells visual system if their is movement
optic array the collection of light rays that interact with objects in the world in front of a viewer. What we see
optic flow determines where we are going. what happens when you move
focus expansion the pt in the center of the horizon from which, when you are in motion, (driving) all points in the perspective image seem to emanate. The one point that is STATIONARY
biological motion pattern of movement of living beings
observor can use ........ to identify whether a set of moving lights is attached to a male or female biological motion
CDS eye movements
IMS Retinal movements
attention can make us more sensitive to some aspects of stimulation and or less sensitive to others
selection mechanisms the nervous sys. provides selective processes that restrict processing to one or a few instances of incoming stimuli.
vision the retina processes a scene selectively by limiting detailed vision of our all cone foveal vision
cortical magnification guarantees that the selected foveal image will receive proportionately large amount of processing
cueing cue is a stimulus that might indicate where or what a subsequent stimulus will be. can be valid, invalid, or neutral
visual search observor looks for a target item among a number of distractors
simple probe detection observer fixates on a point in the start probe, time passes and a test probe appears, observer presses key to indicate whether red dot is on left or right
dependent variable is reaction time; a measure of the time from the onset of a stimulus to a response
used to control cue experiments simple probe detection
spotlight model attention can move from one point to the next. favored by cognitive psy.
zoom lens model attention expands from fixation... grows to fill the whole region... and shrinks to include just the cued location.
visual search procedures are ....... than other experiments. less artificial
feature search a search for a target defined by a single attribute, such as a salient color or orientation
conjunction search search for a target defined by the presence of two or more attributes. EG. red, vertical target among red horizontal and green vertical distractions
parallel processing processing mulitple stimuli at the same time
serial self terminating search items are examined one after another until found
limited capacity parallel process a process that is capable of handling many stimuli at one time but the processes each item more slowly as the number of items increases
watering the garden with the adjustable spray nozzle on low limited capacity parallel processing
Feature Integrationg Theory holds that a limited st of basic features can be processed in parallel preattentively, but that other porperties, including correct binding of features to objects require attention.
preattentive stage a limited set of parallel processors analyze basic feature across the entier field all at once
focused attention stage processing after attention has been deployed. features are combined into a coherent whole
FIT two stages preattentive, focused attention stage
binding problem the challenge of tying diff. attributes of visual stimuli (eg. color, orientation, motion) which are handled bu diff. brain circuits, the appropriate object so that we perceive unified objects (red, verticle, moving right)
illusory conjunction inaccurate combo. of features.
false combination illusory conjunction
three ways that the responses of a cell could be changed by attention enhancement, sharper tuning, altered tuning
neglect inability to attend to or respond to stimuli in the contralesional visual field. EG. patient with left visual neglect wont see anything in left visual field
Balint syndrome failure to attend to more than one object at a time. EG. when shown to objects (a red T and a blue O) patients may report a single illusory conjunction (blue T)
trouble reaching for an object, gaze fixedly ahead, can see only one object at a time balint syndrome
change blindness failure to notice a change between two scence if the meaning of the scene remains Unchanged
apeture problem the fact that when a moving object is viewed through apeture, teh direction of motion of a local feature or part of teh object may be ambiguous.
tells visual system if their is movement comparator
direct perception is the use of environmental cues to generate a percept
mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal.
inattentional blindness an observed phenomenon of the inability to perceive features in a visual scene when the observer is not attending to them.
three ways a response of a cell could be changed by attention enhancement, sharper tuning, altered tuning
response enhancement a neuron responding to an attended stimulus might just give a bigger response.
sharper tuning might cause neuron to respond more quickly
amplitude magnitude of displacement of asound pressure wave
loudness is ass. with amplitude
intensity amount of sound energy falling on an are
frequency the number of cycles per second in a wave
primary determinent of pitch frequency
greater the amplitude greater the loudness
greater the pitch the greather the frequency
sine wave pure tone, simplest kind of sound
complex tones are sound waves consisting of more than one sinusoidal component of different frequencies
fundamental frequency the first harmonic, lowest frequency of a complex sound
harmonic spectra caused by simple vibrating source, such as a guitar string
harmonics are the components of the complex tune. Frequency are integar (whole #) multiples
hertz unit of frequency
frequency range for humans 20-20000Hz
outer ear pinna, ear canal, tympanic membrane (ear drum)
intensity associated with the psychologica perception of loudness
middle ear ossicles and oval window
inner ear cochlea, oragan of corti, cochlear partition, hair cells, and cillia
sounds waves travel through the outer ear and cause the ______ to vibrate tympanic membrane (eardrum)
pinna collects sound and funnels them into the ear
ear canal insulates tympanic membrane, resonant tube
Tympanic membrane vibrates
Vibrations are amplified bc outer and middle ear are filled with air, inner ear is filled with liquid
magnification helps conpensate for sound pressure lost in transmission from middle to inner ear
hair cells situated in the organ of corti
auditory nerve function is roughly analogous to visual sys. carries signals from cochlea to higher centers of the auditory system
tonotopic organization an arrangement in which neurons that respond to different freq. are organized anatomically in order of frequency.
place theory where the cochlear partition is vibrating. Explains how high frequencys are heard
frequency theory how fast the cochlear partition is vibrating
explains how low frequency sounds are heard frequency theory
conductive hearing loss caused by problems with the bones of the middle ear.. vibrations are not transmitted effectively
sensorineural hearing loss caused by damage to hair cells. due to excessive exposure to noise, anitbiotics, cancer drugs.
most common most serious auditory impairmente sensorineural hearing loss
presbycusis old ears.
tone height a sound quality whereby a sound is heard to be a higher or lower pitch.
tone chroma a sound shared by tones that have the same octave interva
pitch is fundamentally ass. fundamental frequency
consonant most please, perfect four, octave
dissonany less elegant, minor second, devil in music
melody sequence of sounds perceived to be coherent structure
tempo perceived speed of the presntation of sounds
respiration initiates speech
components of speech respiration, phonation, articulation
phonation adjust airflow,
vocal tract, manipulation of jaws, lips, tongue. articulation
Resonator VT, changes size and shape
formants peaks in the speech pattern
phonemes sounds that change the meaning of a word
the overlap of articulation in space and time coarticulation
a change in some variable along a continuum is perceived, not as gradual but as instances of discrete categories Categorical perception
timbre a listener can judge that two sounds that have the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar.
proprioception body can sense the location of limbs
mechanoreceptors sensory receptors responsive to mechanical stimulation (pressure and vibration)
respond to mechanical stimulation mechanoreceptors
Detects internal sensations, pain, temp. kinesthesia
thermoreceptors inform us about changes in skin temp.
nociceptors sensory receptors that transmit info. about noxious stimulation
haptic active and info. seeking.
tactile agnosia inability to identify objects by touch
adaptation receptors become adapted and you no longer notice the odor
cross adaptation smelling one odor reduces sensitivity to another
cognitive habituation only reservsible after an extended period of time away from the odor
first gate keeper smell then taste.
neurogenesis the receptors for taste and smell are constantly being generated going through a regular cycle of birth and death
flavor combined experience of smell and true taste
odorants chemical compounds that arre stimulus for smell.
a sensation of a particular smell odor
olfactory sensations are called odors
no ability or limited to conjour up odor imagery
Created by: ashley5273
Popular Psychology sets




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