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MA-XT

Ch. 36 Bushong

QuestionAnswer
what are late effects of radiation based on? Based on stochastic effect.
What are radiation protection guidelines based on? The late effect of radiation and on linear, nonthreshold dose-response relationships.
How must epidemiologic studies be conducted to study effects of low dose radiation? Large number of people exposed to a toxic substace
What effect was caused by high doses in the early practices of radiology that caused callused, cracked and discolored skin on hands and forearms of radiologists Radiodermatitis
What type of stem cells are damaged by radiation? Lymphatic
How long can effects be delayed in peripheral lymphocytes 20 years
what responses are damage to circulating lymphocytes early or late? Chromosome damage
low doses of radiation have been proven to cause what? Chromosome aberradiaation exposure
what can be caused as a late effect of irradiation of blood forming organs? Leukemia as a late response and hematologic depression as an early.
what is used principally to produce radionuclides for used in nuclear medicine? modern cyclotron
what type of dose response are cataracts? The dose response relationship for radiation induced catearacts is nonlinear, threshold.
What is the life shortening span for every rad? Humans can expect a reduced life span of approximately 10 days for every rad
What is the life shortening span for radiation workers Life is only shorten by 12 days
Formula for relative Relative risk=observed cases/expected cases
What is the theory of radiation hormesis small dose of radiation are good us below 10 rads
What is the only theory we practice? ALARA
Reletive risk factor of 1 indicates what? No risk
relative risk factor of 1.5 indicates what frequency Late response is 50% higher in the irradiated population
who/what determines the absolute risk of radiation-induced malignant disease? NAS-BEIR
What is stochastic? no threshold even the smallest dose can cause effect
how have radiation induced malignancy been observed Eperimental animals, at human level have been observed but are insufficient
what type of responses are all radiation induced malignancy? All the late effects
what type of dose response is leukemia? linear and nonthreshold
what groups have exhibited an elevated incidence of leukemia after radiation exposure? A number of human population
where have we accumulated the most info for radiation induced leukemia? Atomis bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
How much greater was the leukemia incidences for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors 100 times that in the nonirradiated population
what is the latent period for radiation induced leukemia? 4 to 7 years
what is the risk period for radiation induced leukemia? 20 years
What year was the incidence of leukemia high in radiologist and why 1940; no protection and received doses over 100 rad per year? 1940 without the benefit of modern radiation protection devices and procedures
Skin cancer has what type of dose response threshold
Created by: SandyVeliz