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Chapter 36 MAXT

Chapter 36 Bushong

QuestionAnswer
what are late effects of radiation based on Stochastic effect
what are radiation protection guidelines based on Late effects of radiation and on linear, nonthreshold dose-response relationship.
how must epidemiologic studies be conducted to study effects of low dose radiation Based on a large number of people exposed toa toxic substance.
what effect was was caused by high doses in the early practices of radiology that caused callused, cracked and discolored skin on hands and forearms of radiologists Radiodermatitis
what type of stem cells are damaged by radiation Lymphocytic stem cells.
how long can effects be delayed in peripheral lymphocytes 20 years
what responses are damage to circulating lymphocytes early or late Chromosome damage
low doses of radiation have been proven to cause what? aberrations that may not be apparent until many years after radiation exposure.
What can be caused as a late effect of irradiation of blood forming organs Produce hematologic depression as an early response or leukemia as a late response.
What is used principally to produce radionuclides for used in nuclear medicine. Modern Cyclotron.
What type of dose response are cataracts Nonlinear,theshold
What is the life shortening span for every rad 10 days
What is the life shortening span for radiation workers Life is shortened by only 12 days.
Formula for relatice risk observed cases/expected cases. realative risk= observed cases/expected cases.
What is the theory of radiation hormesis Suggest that very low radiation doses are beneficial.
What is the only theory we practice ALARA; as low as reasonably achievable.
Relative risk factor of 1 indicates what No risk at all.
Relative risk factor of 1.5 indicates what frequency of late response is 50% higher in the irradiated population
who/what determines the absolute risk of radiation-induced malignant disease National Academy of Science(NAS) Committee on the Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation(BEIR)
What is stochastic One that has no dose threshold.
What type of responses are all radiation induced malignancy All the late effects
How have radiation induced malignancy been observed In experimental animals, and on the basis of these animal experiments, dose-response relationships have been developed.
What type of dose response is leukemia Linear and Nonthreshold.
What groups have exhibited an elevated incidence of leukemia after radiation exposure Atomic Bomb Survivors.
where have we accumulated the most info for radiation induced leukemia Survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
How much greater was the leukemia incidences for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors 100 times that in the nonirradiated population.
what is the latent period for radiation induced leukemia 4 to 7 years
what is the risk period for radiation induced leukemia 20 years
What year was the incidence of leukemia high in radiologist and why 1940 no protection and received doses over 100 rad per year
Skin cancer has what type of dose response threshold dose-response relationship.
What is the BEIR ? Biological effects of Ionizing Radiation
What effect does chronic low doses have on fertility low- dose, chronic
the most radiosensitive period in pregnancy
what period is of the least concern in pregnancy first 2 weeks
cancer is what type of effect of radiation exposure
what is the risk for skin cancer
what is the latent period for skin cancer
Created by: CherieMichael