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Chapter 36 Bushong

Late Effects of Radiation

QuestionAnswer
what are late effects of radiation based on? stochastic effects
what are radiation protection guidelines based on? Late effects of radiation and on linear, nonthresh dose-response relationships
how must epidemiologic studies be conducted to study effects of low dose radiation? Studies of large number of people exposed to a toxic substnace
what effect was was caused by high doses in the early practices of radiology that caused callused, cracked and discolored skin on hands and forearms of radiologists? radiodermatitis
what type of stem cells are damaged by radiation? lymphocytic stem cells
how long can effects be delayed in peripheral lymphocytes? for as long as 20 years
what responses are damage to circulating lymphocytes early or late? chromosome damage
low doses of radiation have been proven to cause what? chromosome aberations that may not be apparent until many years after radiation exposure
what can be caused as a late effect of irradiation of blood forming organs? hematologic depression as an early response or leukemia as a late response
what is used principally to produce radionuclides for used in nuclear medicine? modern cyclotrons
what type of dose response are cataracts? nonlinear, threshold (stochastic)
What is the life shortening span for every rad? at worst, humans can expect a reduced life span of approximately 10 days for every rad
what is the life shortening span for radiation workers? life is shortened by only 12 days
formula for relative risk observed cases/expected cases? relative risk = observed cases/expected cases
what is the theory of radiation hormesis? suggests that very low radiations doses are beneficial
What is the only theory we practice? ALARA
relative risk factor of 1 indicates what? no risk at all
relative risk factor of 1.5 indicates what? frequency of late response is 50% higher in the irradiated population?
who/what determines the absolute risk of radiation-induced malignant disease? National Academy of Science (NAS) and Committee on the biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)
what is stochastic? one that has no dose threshold
what type of responses are all radiation induced malignancy? all the late effects
how have radiation induced malignancy been observed? experimental animals and at the human level late effects have been observed
what type of dose response is leukemia? linear and nonthreshold (stochastic)
what groups have exhibited an elevated incidence of leukemia after radiation exposure? atomic bomb survivors
where have we accumulated the most info for radiation induced leukemia? observations of survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
How much greater was the leukemia incidences for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors? 100 times that in the nonirridiated population
what is the latent period for radiation induced leukemia? 4 to 7 years
what is the risk period for radiation induced leukemia? 20 years
What year was the incidence of leukemia high in radiologist and why? 1940; no protection and received doses over 100 rad per year
Skin cancer has what type of dose response? threshold
What is the BEIR? Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
What effect does chronic low doses have on fertility? low-dose, chronic irridiation does not impair fertility
the most radiosensitive period in pregnancy? during the first trimester
what period is of the least concern in pregnancy? first 2 weeks
cancer is what type of effect of radiation exposure? late effect
what is the risk for skin cancer? 500 to 2000 rad risk 4:1 ; 4000 to 6000 rad or 6000 to 10000 rad risk 14:1 and 27:1 respectively
what is the latent period for skin cancer? approximately 5 to 10 years
Created by: KendallBryant