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CWI PSYC 101 Chap 5

Psychology in Everday Life by David G Myers

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system take in stimulus energies from our environment sensation
the process by which our brain organizes and interprets sensory information, transforming it into meaningful objects and events perception
changing one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret transduction
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time absolute threshold
below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness subliminal
activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive or remember objects or events in certain ways priming
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (or jnd) difference threshold
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum proportion (rather than a constant amount) Weber's law
reduced sensitivity in response to constant stimulation sensory adaptation
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next wavelength
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth hue
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude intensity
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye; contains the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information retina
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond rods
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina; in daylight or well-lit conditions, cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations cones
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain optic nerve
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; this part of the retina is "blind" because it has no receptor cells blind spot
the processing of many aspects of a problem or scene at the same time; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision parallel processing
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as edges, lines, and angles feature detectors
the senses or act of hearing audition
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second) frequency
a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency pitch
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses cochlea [KOHK-lee-uh]
a social interaction in which one person ( the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur hypnosis
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste sensory interaction
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts kinesthesis
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance vestibular sense
an organized whole. ____ psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. gestalt
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground) figure-ground
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups grouping
the ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance depth perception
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals visual cliff
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes binocular cues
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object retinal disparity
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone monocular cues
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent color, brightness, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change perceptual constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object color constancy
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field perceptual adaptation
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another perceptual set
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input, such as through telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition extrasensory perception (ESP)
Created by: jennifermycwi
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