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PSYB30 1

Chapter 1- Personality

individual differences characteristics of persons that can be said to differ w/respect to amount or degree from one person to the next. S/A personality traits, schemas are considered part of individual differences
personality traits general, internal, and and comparative dispositions that we attribute to ppl in our initial efforts to sort individuals into beh. categories & to account 4 consistencies we perceive or expect in beh. from 1 situation to the next and over time
self-report questionnaires rationale= most people have a good idea of what their basic traits are
contribution of personality psychology construction & validation of scientifically useful measures of individual differences in personality traits
good trait measures useful to predicting behaviour over time and across situations. employed in efforts to discern biological bases of human beh.
Big Five traits provide a comprehensive description of basic dimensions of variability in human psychological qualities that are implicated in consequential social beh. 5 broad personality traits assumed by some researchers to subsume the entire domain of possible traits. Extraversion-introversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness, & agreeableness
extraversion (E) sociable vs. retiring; fun-loving vs. sober; affectionate vs. reserved; friendly vs. aloof; spontaneous vs. inhibited; talkative vs. quiet
neuroticism (N) worrying vs. calm; nervous vs. at ease; high-strung vs. relaxed; insecure vs. secure; self-pitying vs. self-satisfied; vulnerable vs. hardy
openness to experience (O) original vs. conventional; imaginative vs. down to earth; creative vs. uncreative; broad interests vs. narrow interests; complex vs. simple; curious vs. incurious
agreeableness (A) good-natured vs. irritable; soft-hearted vs. ruthless; courteous vs. rude; forgiving vs.vengeful; sympathetic vs. callous; agreeable vs. disagreeable
conscientiousness (C) conscientiousness vs. negligent; careful vs. careless; reliable vs. undependable; well-organized vs. disorganized; self-disciplined vs. weak-willed; persevering vs. qutting
characteristic adaptations- motivational, cognitive, or developmental concern the meaning of which comes in part frm the particular temporal, situational, or social role-oriented context w/in which it is embedded adaptations s/a goals, schemas motives, plans, & stages comprise level 2 of personality. Level 1 is made up of dispositional traits and level 3 is made up of integrative life stories
human motivation theories what people fundamentally desire in life
Cognition & personality theories the role of cognitive factors—values, beliefs, expectancies, schemas, plans, personal constructs, cognitive styles—in human individuality
Developmental theories focuses on the evolution of the self, & its relationships w/others from birth to old age
Sigmund Freud (1900/1953); motivational unconscious drives/needs for sexuality & aggression
Henry Murray (1938); motivational more than 20 psychogenic needs, s/a needs for achievement, power, affiliation/intimacy
Carl Rogers (1951); motivational fundamental need for self-actualization motivates healthy, growth-inducing behavior
Abraham Maslow (1968); motivational hierarchy of needs, running from physiological and safety needs to esteem and actualization needs
Deci & Ryan (1991); motivational 3 basic growth needs; autonomy competence, relatedness
George Kelly (1955); social-cognitive psychology of personal constructs: basic categories for construing subjective experience
Cantor & Kihlstrom (1987); social-cognitive social intelligence: schema & skills
Erik Erikson (1963); self-developmental 8 stages of psychosocial development
Jane Loevinger (1976); self-developmental stages of ego development
Characteristic Adaptations (eg. Goals, motives, & life plans; religious values & beliefs; cognitive schemas; psychosocial stages; developmental tasks) particular facets of personality that describe personal adaptations to motivational, cognitive, & developmental challenges & tasks. Usually contextualized in time, place, situation or social role
integrative life stories an internalized & evolving narrative of the self that integrates the reconstructed past, perceived present, & anticipated future in order to provide a life w/a sense of unity & purpose
life story is an identity, and as the identity of an individual changes so does the story
Interpreting peoples’ life stories ppl actively & more-or-less consciously make meaning out of their own lives in terms of narratives that are prevalent in their own cultures. Pick & choose from diff. stories in their culture to help in the creation of narrative stories
Other approaches to interpretation incl. stories are shaped by forces over which individuals have little control, that life stories are fragmented & often false, & that individuals don’t & can’t know what the real meanings of their lives are.
Psychoanalytic way of interpreting life stories interpretation is always a matter of delving deep beneath the surface narrative. Seeking out a deeper meaning and underlying conflicts
Dispositional Traits (eg. Dominance, tendency towards depression, & punctuality) Broad dimensions of personality that describe assumedly internal, global, & stable individual differences in beh., thought,& feeling. Traits account for consistency in individual functioning across diff. situations & over time
Life stories (eg. Earliest memory, reconstruction of childhood, anticipations of future self; rags-to-riches stories) evolving & integrative incl. past, present, & future; address the prblms of identity & integration in personality—prblms especially characteristic of modern adulthood (modern societies)
Created by: Ugly.Beauty
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