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Study Guide Ch. 1

Introducing Psychology

Define Psychology The scientific study of behavior and the mind.
Major Subfields of Psychology 1. Applied - (professional) mostly client based, largest subgroup, many in private practice. 2. Research - (academic) mostly teaching and/or research. Many in Universities and Colleges.
How Psychology is linked to other fields Biology, Anthropology, Sociology, Computer Science, and Medicine.
Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist Psychologist - can't prescribe medication Psychiatrist - Specifically working with disorders, can prescribe medication.
Neuroscience Examine structure and function of the nervous system in humans and animals ranging from an individual cell to overt behavior.
Research in Psychology We seek answers using scientific method. (gather evidence)(controlled experiments)(analyze results)(draw conclusions). Apply findings to help people.
British Empiricism Philosophers believed that all ideas and knowledge are gained through the senses.
Psychophysics Understanding vision and other senses.
Theory of Evolution The human mind is a product of the biological continuity between humans and other species.
Wilhelm Wundt's approach (Consciousness) He campaigned to study the human mind and behavior. "Building Blocks".
Titchner and Structuralism Studied conscious experience and it's structure.
Primary source of Gestalt Psychology Goals : to describe the organization of consciousness and principles of perpetual organization.
Sigmund Freud's ideas about the unconscious mind Conscious and unconscious mind, and the importance of childhood.
William James's Functionalism and it's relationship to the Theory of Evolution Functionalism is the study of how the conscious mind allows an organism to survive and adapt to the environment.
John B. Watson's ideas about developing psychology as a science, and behaviorism Only behavior can be observed, only study observable behavior(animal models).
B. F. Skinner's contribution to behaviorism Animal models, hands on approach.
Biological Approach Assume that behavior and mental processes are largely shaped by biological processes (nervous system, hormones, and other chemicals).
Evolutionary Approach Emphasize the inherited adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes.
Psychodynamic Approach Emphasize the interplay of unconscious mental processes in determining human thoughts, feelings and behavior.
Behavioral Approach Human behavior is determined by what a person has learned primarily through reward and punishment.
Cognitive Psychology How the brain takes in and processes information, creates perceptions, makes and retrieves memories and generates patterns of action.
Humanistic Psychology Behavior that is controlled by the decisions people make about their lives based on their perception of the world.
Diversity od people engaged in psychology has changed over time Broadened the fields of study.
Sensitivity to Sociocultural factors in psychological studies Different cultures have so many different views and behaviors.
Individualist vs. collectivist individualist - make own decisions, self profit collectivist - group persuaded decision not personal choice, society influence.
Created by: chloe.spencer.11