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TOP Chapter 1

Intro to Personality Theory

How did the ancient Greeks perceive personality? They had a Dionysian view: they saw the body as a cage and had the concept of transmigration
What is transmigration? to pass at death from one body or being to another
three parts that the ancient Greeks believed to make up the personality Personare (the mouthpiece), Persona (the mask), and Character (engraving on the mask aka specific aspects of the mask)
Personality A pattern of relatively permanent traits and characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior
Traits relatively permanent dispositions of an individual, which is inferred from behavior
Characteristics unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperament, physique, and intelligence
theory a set of related assumptions that allow scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses
A theory is a set of ________. assumptions
A theory is a set of _________ assumptions. related
__________________ is used by the researcher to formulate hypotheses logical deductive reasoning
epistemology the nature of knowledge
science the branch of study concerned with observation and classification of data and with the verification of general laws through the testing of hypotheses
hypothesis an educated guess or prediction specific enough for its validity to be tested through the use of the scientific method
deductive reasoning going from general to specific
inductive reasoning going from specific to general
taxonomy a classification of things according to their natural relationships
Why do different theories exist? alternate theories exist because of the very nature of a theory allows the theorist to make speculations from a particular point of view
Psychology of science a subdisipline of psychology that studies both science and the behaviors of scientists
What makes a theory useful? generates research, falsifiable, organizes data, guides action, internally consistent, and parsimonious
descriptive research research concerned with the measurement, labeling, and categorization of the units employed in theory building
falsifiable theory a theory that must be precise enough to suggest research that may either support or fail to support its major tenets
operational definition definition that defines units in terms of observable events or behaviors that can be measured
parsimony criterion of a useful theory that states when two theories are equal on other criteria, the simpler one is preferred
causality holds that behavior is a function of past experiences
teleology explanation of behavior in terms of future goals or purposes
validity the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure
construct validity the extent to which an instrument measures some hypothetical construct
examples of construct validity extraversion, aggressiveness, intelligence, and emotional stability
3 types of construct validity convergent validity, divergent validity, and discriminant validity
predictive validity the extent that a test predicts some future behavior
Created by: Ellemkay