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Abnormal Child

Exam 1 Abnormal Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Competence The ability to adapt to one’s environment. Children’s competence involves their performance relative to their same-age peers as well as their individual course of development.
Developmental Pathway A concept to describe the sequence and timing of particular behaviors, and to highlight the known and suspected relationships of behaviors over time.
Externalizing Problems Problem behaviors that begin during childhood and encompass acting-out behaviors such as aggression and delinquent behavior.
Internalizing Problems Problem behaviors that begin during childhood and include anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, and withdrawn behavior.
Protective Factor A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and decreases the chances that the outcome will occur.
Psychological Disorder A pattern of behavioral, cognitive, or physical symptoms (a) some degree of distress in the subject; (b) behavior indicating some degree of disability; and (c) an increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.
Resillience The ability to avoid negative outcomes despite being at risk for psychopathology.
Risk Factor A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increases the chances that the outcome will occur.
Attachment The process of establishing and maintaining an emotional bond with parents or other significant caregivers.
Developmental Psychopathology An approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood and adolescence in a manner that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks
Emotion Reactivity A dimension of emotional processes associated with individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience.
Emotion Regulation The processes by which emotional arousal is redirected, controlled, or modified to facilitate adaptive functioning.
Etiology The study of the causes of disorders. With respect to childhood disorders, etiology considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact.
Family Systems Theory that the behavior of an individual can be most accurately understood in the context of the dynamics of his or her family.
Social Cognition A construct to describe how people think about themselves in relation to others, and how they interpret ambiguous events and solve problems.
Social Learning A theoretical approach to the study of behavior that is interested in both overt behaviors and the role of possible cognitive mediators that may influence such behaviors directly or indirectly.
Temperament The child’s innate reactivity and self-regulation with respect to the domains of emotions, activity level, and attention
Transaction The process by which the subject and environment interact in a dynamic fashion to contribute to the expression of a disorder.
Behavioral Analysis An effort to identify as many factors as possible that could be contributing to a child’s problem behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and to develop hypotheses about which ones are the most important and/or most easily changed.
Behavioral Assessment The evaluation of the child’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings, based on which hypotheses are formulated about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it.
Clinical Assessment A process of differentiating, defining, and measuring the behaviors, cognitions, and emotions that are of concern, as well as the environmental circumstances that may be contributing to these problems.
Clinical Description A summary of unique behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that together make up the features of a given psychological disorder.
Diagnosis The identification of a disorder from an examination of the symptoms.
Intervention A broad concept that encompasses many different theories and methods with a range of problem-solving strategies directed at helping the child and family adapt more effectively to their current and future circumstances.
Multi-method Assessment Approach A clinical assessment that emphasizes the importance of obtaining information from different informants, in a variety of settings, using a variety of procedures that include interviews, observations, questionnaires, and tests.
Prognosis The prediction of the course or outcome of a disorder.
Semi-Structured Interviews Interviews that include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively consistent manner regardless of who is doing the interview.
Categorical Classification The diagnostic systems that are primarily based on informed professional consensus, which is an approach that has dominated and continues to dominate the field
Dimensional Classification An empirically based approach to the diagnosis and classification of child psychopathology which assumes that there are a number of independent dimensions or traits of behavior and that all children possess these to varying degrees.
Treatment Planning and Evaluation The process of using assessment information to generate a treatment plan and evaluate its effectiveness.
Treatment Corrective actions that will permit successful adaptation by eliminating or reducing the impact of an undesired outcome that has already occurred.
A-B-A-B Reversal Design provides evidence that changes in behavior are due to the intervention.
Incidence Rates The rate at which new cases of a disorder appear over a specified period of time.
Mediator Variables The process, mechanism, or means through which a variable produces a specific outcome.
Moderator Variables A factor that influences the direction or strength of a relationship between variables.
Prevalence Rates he number of cases of a disorder, whether new or previously existing, that are observed during a specified period of time.
Treatment Effectiveness The degree to which a treatment can be shown to work in actual clinical practice, as opposed to controlled laboratory conditions
Treatment Efficacy The degree to which a treatment can produce changes under well-controlled conditions that depart from those typically used in clinical practice.
Created by: 15508824