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ocular/urinary

K-9 Fel

QuestionAnswer
The main excretion organ is the __ Kidneys
Functions of the kidneys are: Filtration, absorption, secretion
The urinary system is considered a __ system Sterile
What does FLUTD stand for? feline lower urinary tract dz
FLUTD is also known as ___ and ___ , FUS and Feline idiopathic Interstitial cystitis
__ is inflammation of the urinary tract/bladder and is common in __ between _ yrs old *FLUTD *males *2-6yrs
Define:Periuria Urinating in different places
Flutd is ___ and__% Resolve in __ days. Recurrence is ___ *Idiopathic *85% *7-10 *common
Cloudy urine with excessive licking is typically seen in ____ canine bacterial cystitis
___ and ___ are the most common bacteria seen in UTI’s E-coli and Proteus spp
___ is used for ___ days and is the most common AB used to treat UTI’s *Clavamox *10-14 days
___ and __ are urinary dz’s that are fatal if not treated Feline urolith obstruction and urethral plug
___ are the most common urethral obstructions in felines Uroliths
Distended bladder and excessive crying are signs of: Feline urethral obstruction
__ contain small amounts minerals and lrg amounts matrix Urethral plug
__ contain large amount of mineral and small amount of matrix Uroliths
Referring to x-rays: Ca oxalate, struvites, and urates are all ___ radiopaque (light)’
A diet low in __ can help dissolve struvites PH (Magnesium)
__% of stones seen in blocked Toms are ___ *60% *struvites
___ system catheters are use in blocked Toms Closed
3 most common dog uroliths: Struvites, Ca oxalate, Urates
__ change and __ are the corrective measure needed to treat dogs with uroliths *Diet change *sx
__ crystals are found in___ and __% of female dogs and cats due to an __ph *`Struvite *schn/cats 80% *ph (alkaline)
__ crystal are very common ___ and 30-50% are found in ___ *Ca oxalate *Min Schn *males
___ (Urates) are common in dalmations and are from increased ___ and ___ Uric acid crystals *PH /uric acid
__% of cardiac output is filtered the the kidneys 20%
Reabsorption takes place in the ___ renal tubules
Filtering takes place in the renal___ corpuscal
Pre renal: Dehydration, vomiting/diarrhea
Post renal: Blockage/backup of urine
Renal azotemia: Acute renal failure/kidney damage
3 phases of acute renal failure: Induction, maintance, recovery
Intial insult, decreased renal function: Induction
Time during renal tubule damage occurs- wks-months : maintance
Time in which function improves: Recovery
Early CS PU/PD (cushinginoids, UTI, DM): Renal reserve
Up to 60% of nephron loss PU/PD Increased thirst: Renal Insufficiency
Azotemia, 75% loss of nephrons : Renal failure
Uremic breath, dehydration and need for SQ fluids: advanced renal failure
__ and are nephrotoxic drugs “Mycine “
__ is a Bacterial causes of kidney dz that reduces bld flow thru the kidneys : Pyelonephritis
Kidneys are located: behind the 13th rib
Acute renal failure will have___ and a __PVC, __BUN/CREAT__CA __Phos *acidosis *inc *inc *inc *inc
Chronic renal failure will have a __ with a__PCV __in potassium (K) and __in Phos *dec *anemia *dec *Inc
Loss of urinary control: Incontinence
Incontinence can be caused by ___ and ___ hormonal change and Sphincter tone
Endocrine imbalance after spay can cause : hormonal incontinence
Urinary incontinence is treated with ___ and ____ Diethylstiestrol and Phenylpropanolamide (prion)
Inflammation of the tissue that line the inner surface of the eyelid: Conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis can be caused by ___ or ___ Bacterial or injury
__ or ___ can be used to treat conjunctivitis Triple AB ointment and cortison
___ is the most common virus that cause BILATERAL conjunctivitis in felines Feline herpes virus
Normal Schimer tear test in dogs___ and normal in cats is *15-25 *11-23
Def: Epiphoria tearing
2 causes of Epiphoria are: Overproduction or faulty drainage (defect)
__ is when the eyelids roll inward ____Sx is proformed to repair: *entropion * Lateral canthoplasty
Def: Chemosis Swelling of the conjunctiva
___ is when the eyelids roll outward and is a ___ condition Ectropion *congenital
Hyper trophy / prolapse of the 3rd eyelid is know as _____ cherry eye
Hypertrophy is common in dogs __ yrs and requires __ for repair <2 yrs *sx
The 3rd eyelid produces __% of tear 30%
Increased intraocular pressure: Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a ___ or ___condition that is considered an ____ if >30mm/hg hereditary or secondary *emergency
Normal intraocular pressure is 12-22 mm /hg
Treatment for glaucoma : Latanoprost / dichlorphenamide
Latanoprost (Xalatan): facilitates flow of ocular fluid
Dichlorphenamide(Daranide): Decrease production of ocular fluid
____ is secondary to glaucoma, a common complication: Inflammation of ciliary, iris, choroid: Uvitis
Ulcerative Keratitis are diagnosed using ___ and usually heal within ___ Flourenscein dye test *Days
___ and ___ can be used to treat ulcers Autologous(serum for pet) broad spectrum AB’s
Autologous: serum from patient used to treat corneal ulcers, good for 72 hrs
Deep ulcers are known as ____ and have membrane erosion Desmetocelele
Opaque, pink or milky lesions w/vascularization is ___ also known as Pannus : Keratitis
Keratitis is treated with life long ___ or ____ and is seen in increased ___ *corticosteriods or cyclosporine(opptimmune ) *increased altitudes
Kerato conjunctivitis sicca (KCS) Is also known as ___and is a lack of ____ *Dry eye *tear production
Dry eye causes recurrent ____ and ___ if left untreated. ___ and ___ are the meds of choice *CONJUNCTIVITIS *BLINDNESS * artificial tears and cyclosporine(opptimmune)
Reduce lens opacity: Cataracts
Cararacts are ___ or secondary to ____ Genetic or DM
___ is normal graying of the lens due to age and must be distinguished from cataracts Senile nuclear sclerosis
Inherited dz cause a loss of cones, rods, bld supply: PRA-Progressive retinol atrophy
Metabolic disorder that causes cataracts: diabetes mellitus
__ are for vision in the light and __ are for vision in the dark *Rods *cones
CS of PRA are night blindness, blindness,___ and a decrease in the ____ *Cataracts *optic nerve
___ is associated with taurine def in cats PRA
Dilated pupils: Medrosis
Constricted pupils: Miosis
Created by: brit_2112
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