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Chemistry 1405

chapter 1 & 2

the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes. Chemistry
matter anything that has mass and occupies space.
A characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured. property
What are some of the features of the procedure known as the scientific method? Observation, hypothesis, experiment, and theory.
Observation is something that is _________ and can be _________. witnessed; recorded
hypothesis- a possible ________ for an observation. explanation
Experiment- action we do to _______ a hypothesis. Test
A set of hypothesis are organized into a _____, often called a _______. theory; model
theory- an attempt to ______ some part of the universe (the why). explain
A theory is used to make _______, which are compared with further observations. If they do not agree, then the theory must be ________ or _______. predictions; modified; replaced.
When similar law are made in many situations, this behavior is stated as a natural_____, a summary of observations. scientific law
a quantitative observation. It is made by using comparing with a standard measuring device or unit. measurement
four important parts of any measurement. number, unit, physical property, and uncertainty number that tells the precision of the measurement.
The ______ that tells the amount of the quantity measured. number
the _____ that tells scales the measurement. unit
______is the amount of matter in an object. Mass
_______ is the force exerted on the mass of an object by the full of gravity. weight
The expression of a number as the product of a digit term and an exponential term, such as 3.07 x 10^15 Scientific notation
a non-zero digit, followed by a decimal point and any other digits. digit term
The number 10 raised to a power, called the _______. In 3.07 x 10^15, 10^15 exponential term.
The digits that are certain, plus 1 that is uncertain is called ___________. significan figures
All __________ _______ are significan figures. non-zero digits
_________ (to the left of non-zero digit) are place-holders. They are _____ significant figures. leading zeros; not
________ ______ (to the right of the last non-zero digit) are significant figures, IF the number has a ________ ________ _______. Trailing zeros; written decimal point
When adding or subtracting, the sum or difference should have as many _____ _______ as the term that has the _____ decimal places. decimal places; fewest
When multiplying or dividing, the products or qoutient should has as many ________ ______ as the factor that has the ______ significant figures. significant figures; fewest
What are the basic units of length, mass, volume, time, and temperature? meter (m), gram (g), liter (L), second (s), degree celcius (°C) and kelvin (K).
A ______ is the mass of 1 cm^3 of water at its maximum density (4°C). gram
A _____ is the volume of 1kg of water at 4°C. liter
1 m = ___ dm 10 dm
1 m = ___ cm 100 cm
1 km = ____ m 1000 m
1 m = ___ mm 1000 mm
1 kg = ___ g 1000 g
1 g = ____ mg 1000 mg
1 L = ____ mL 1000 mL
1 m³ = ____ cm³ 1,000,000 cm³
1 mL = ____ cm³ = ___ cc 1 cm³; 1 cc
What is the formula of density? d = m/v
All _____ we know has energy. matter
Energy the ability to do work.
What are the two classification of energy? kinetic and potential energy
the energy possesed by matter due to its motion. Kinetic energy
potential energy energy that is stored in matter.
the form of energy that flows from an object of higher temperature to an object of lower temperature; it is associated with the ___ of the particles in a substance. Heat; motion
Energy, particularly heat, can be measured ______. calories (cal)
______ the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of pure water 1°C. calories
Since the calorie is not a lot of heat, the _______ is often used. kilocalories (kcal)
1 kal = _____ cal 1000 cal
The SI unit for both energy and work is the _____. joule (J)
1 cal = _____ J 4.184 J
1 kJ = ____ J 1000 J
What are the temperature scales? °F, °C, and K.
formula of Kelvin to Celcius K = °C + 273.15
formula of Celcius to Kelvin °C = K - 273.15
______ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1°C. specific heat (SH)
heat = (mass)(specific heat)(change in temp.) q = (m)(SH)(ΔT)
How to calculate change of the temperature? ΔT = T2 - T1
Uniform composition, appearace, and properties throughout is called ______. homogeneous
Not uniform in composition throughout is called ______. heterogeneous
2 or more substances, each of which retains its identity and characteristic properties, so that can be separated by physical means is called _____. mixture
_____ is a homogeneous mixture. solution
A form of matter with a definite, fixed composition is called _______. (pure) substance
a pure substance that is composed of 2 or more elements chemically combined in definite proportions is called _______. compound
A pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by physical or chemical means is called ______. element
has both a definite shape and a definite volume is called ______. solid
has definite volume, but not a definite shape; it take shape of its container is called _____. liquid
has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume; it takes the shape and volume of its container. gas
liquids and gases are collctively called _____ because they do not have a definite shape, they are able to flow. fluids
A change that does not alter the identity of the substance is called ______. physical change
a process that involves a change in the composition or structure of the substance is called ______. chemical change
conversion of matter from one state to another is called ____. changes of state
change from a solid to a liguid is called _____, and occurs at the ______ (mp). melting; melting point
the temperature at which the particles in the solid gain sufficient energy to overcome the attractive forces that hold them together is called _____. melting point (mp)
_______ changing from a liquid to a solid, occurs at the _____ (fp). freezing; freezing point
the temperature at which the particles in the liquid slow down enough that the attractve forces pull the particles close together is called _____. freezing point.
______ is energy needed at the melting point to separate the particles of a solid; also, energy ________ when the liquid freezes. heat of fusion; released
heat = (mass)(heat of fusion) q = (m)(ΔHfus)
liquid molecules with sufficient energy escape from the liquid surface and enter the gas phase is called ______. evaporating
Gas bubbles form throughout the liquid, rise to the surface, and escape is called ______, which occurs at the _____. boiling; boiling point (bp)
Gas molecules cool, slow down, lose kinetic energy, and convert to liquid is called _____. condensation
the temperature at which all the molecules of the liquid have the energy needed to change in to a gas is called ______. boiling point.
energy needed to vaporize exactly 1 g of liquid to gas at its boiling point; also, energy released when the gas condensed is called _____. heat of vaporization
heat = (mass)(heat of vaporization) q = (m)(ΔHvap)
changing from a solid directly to a gas without going through the liquid state is called _____. sublimation
a graph that illustrate, visually, changes of state as heat is added called ______. heating curve
a graph that illustrate, visullay, changes of state as heat is removed called ______. cooling curve
Created by: lhen