Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

psych 10: quiz 2

info from ch 4-8

Jerome Bruner Proposed that the earliest social structures for language development involving formats (recurrent socially patterned activities in which adult and child do things together). Developed term for LASS
Noam Chomsky linguist, proposed that language is innate and develops through a universal process of maturation, also proposed LAD as the mechanism by which children learn language
Jean Piaget (know the names of his four stages of cogn. development, and associated ages) Sensorimotor (Birth-2 yrs): realizes connection of sensation and motor; Preoperational (2-6): use symbols to rep objects internally; Concrete (6-12): mastery of logic & develop. of “rational” thinking; Formal (12-19): develop. of abstract & hyp. reasoning
Lev Vygotsky research on the role of social interaction in cognitive development, argued that culture is inseparable from development and that cog. develops to perform culturally valued functions
A-not-B error part of object permanence, when child looks at location A, where the object had been previously found, even though the child observed the object hidden at location B
AIDS orphans in Africa children orphaned because parents died from AIDS, traditionally used to be cared for by extended family, but parents dying has overburdened this system, suffer from same effects of institutional care as other orphaned children, like insecure attachment
Attachment: avoidant, resistant, secure emotional bond that children form w/ caregiver at 7-9 months; a: infants indifferent to where their mom is sitting & might/not cry when mom leaves, r:upset when mother leaves but not comforted by their return, s: comfortable w/ stranger if mom is present
autism a mental condition defined primarily by an inability to relate normally to other people and low scores on intelligence tests
axon the main protruding branch of a neuron; it carries messages to other cells in the form of electrical impulses
babbling a form of vocalizing, beginning at around 7 months, in which infants utter strings of syllables that combine a consonant sound and a vowel sound
baby-friendly hospital care NICU (newborn intensive care unit) : lights are dimmed, babies are watched for cues (hunger or changing); Stethoscopes warmed before placed on baby’s chest; incubators like cozy nests than sterile platforms; family included in the baby’s care
brain stem (function and location) base of brain, which controls such elementary reactions as blinking and sucking, as well as such vital functions as breathing and sleeping
Broca’s area outside surface of the left frontal lobe. Damage in this area causes normal speech to be either absent or severely disrupted
centration young children's tendency to focus on only one feature of an object to the exclusion of all other features
cerebellum (function and location) hind brain (back), coordinates and regulates muscular activity
cerebral cortex (function and location) brain's outermost layer. The networks integrate information from several sensory sources with memories of past experiences, processing them in a way that results in human forms of thought and action
collective monologues communications in which young children each voice their own thoughts without attending to what the others are saying
conversational act actions that achieve goals through language
classical conditioning learning in which previously existing behaviors come to be elicited by new stimuli
cleft palate abnormal development of the structures of the mouth during the prenatal period
crying patterns in infants Increases from birth-6 weeks, then starts to decrease. At a few months of age, infants begin to cry voluntarily as the cerebral cortex becomes involved.
deferred imitation the ability to imitate an action observed in the past
decentration the cognitive ability to pull away from focusing on just one feature of an object in order to consider multiple features
dendrite the protruding parts of a neuron that receive messages from the axons of other cells
dishabituation term used to describe the situation in which an infant's interest is renewed after a change in the stimulus
egocentrism (for Piaget) to "center on oneself," to consider the world entirely in terms of one's own point of view
emotion a feeling state that involves distinctive physiological reactions and cognitive evaluations, and motivates action
experience-dependant brain processes development of neural connections that is initiated in response to experience
experience-expectant brain processes development of neural connections under genetic controls that occurs in any normal environment
explicit memory the ability t recall absent objects and events without any clear reminder
exuberant synaptogenesis a rapid growth in synaptic density that prepares the brain for a vast range of possible experiences
face perception in infants infants can distinguish normal face from jumbled face, and preferred the normal one
fine motor skills (examples from 6 to 24 months) motors related to development and coordination of small muscles, such as those that move the fingers and eyes; 6-grasing, 12-use of thumb and index to grasp, 18-stack 2 blocks, 24-stack 3-4 blocks and feed self with spoon
fontanel "soft spots," or spaces separating the bones of the skull prenatally and in early infancy
food insecurity lacking enough food to ensure good health
grammar the rules of a given language for the sequencing of words in a sentence and the ordering of parts of words
gross motor skills motor skills related to the development and coordination of large muscles; important for locomotion
gross motor skills (examples from 6 to 24 months) 6-siting without support,12-hands and knees crawling, 18-walking with assistance, 24-walking alone
growth in weight for boys and girls, 0 to 13 weeks 4kg - 7 and 1/2 or 8kg, with boys usually weighing more
habituation the process in which attention to novelty decreases with repeated exposure
head growth at birth, the baby’s head is 70 percent of its adult size and accounts for 25 percent of the baby’s total length. By 1 year of age, the head will account for 20 percent of body length, and by adulthood, 12 percent
head proportion in growth during the fetal period, the head accounts for as much as 50 percent of body length. The head decreases from 25 percent of body length at birth to 12 percent in adulthood
implicit memory the ability to recognize objects and events that have been previously experienced
intentionality the ability to engage in behaviors directed toward achieving a goal
intermodal perception understanding that a certain object or event can be simultaneously perceived by more than one sensory system
internal working model a mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences with their caregivers and that they use to guide their reactions with their caregivers and others
LAD (Chomsky) aka language acquisition device; Chomsky's term for an innate language processing capacity that is programmed to recognize the universal rules that underlie any particular language that a child might hear
LASS (Bruner) aka language acquisition support system; Bruner's term for the parental behaviors and formatted events within which children acquire language. It it the environmental complement to the innate biologically constituted LAD
learning a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by the experience of events in the environment
methods of evaluating infant sensory capacities present infants with a stimulus and observe their overt behavioral or physiological responses to it or presenting a novel stimulus that captures the infant's attention, continue presenting until they get bored & stop paying attention to it (habituation)
morpheme the smallest unit of meaning in the words of a language
myelin (function and location) a sheath of fatty cells that insulates axons and seed transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to the next
neuron a nerve cell
neuron growth in first 15 months increase in the size and complexity of the information-receiving dendrites and the information-transmitting axons and growth of myelin; which speeds the transfer of information from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitter a chemical secreted by a cell sending a message that carries the impulse across the synaptic gap to the receiving cell
newborn capacities for: hearing, smell, touch, taste, vision h: notice human voice, prefer it & like exagg. pronunciation; s: same discrimination as adults’ & responds to sweet smells; to: sensitive to tactile stimulation & deprivation = low weight gain; ta: present before birth; v: least developed sense at birth
object permanence the understanding that objects have substance, maintain their identities when they change location, and ordinarily continue to exist when out of sight
occipital lobe (function and location) back, above cerebellum; specialized for vision
operant conditioning learning in which changes in behavior are shaped by the consequences of that behavior, thereby giving rise to new and more complete behaviors
Operation Smile nonprofit medical services group, provide affected children with reconstructive surgery and speech and language therapy
parietal lobe (function and location) top/middle of brain, for spatial perception
perceptual scaffolding the way in which a familiar word serves as an anchor for learning new words that come immediately before and after it
phoneme the smallest sound categories in human speech that distinguish meanings. Phonemes vary from language to language
phonological development learning to segment speech into meaningful units of sound
pragmatic development learning the conventions that govern the use of language in particular social contexts
precausal thinking Piaget's description of the reasoning of young children that does not follow the procedures of either deductive or inductive reasoning
prefrontal area part of cortex located directly behind the forehead, and important to the development of voluntary behaviors
preoperational stage according to Piaget, the stage of thinking between infancy and middle childhood in which children are unstable to decenter their thinking or to think through the consequences of an action
primary circular reaction a term by Piaget describing infant’s tendency to repeat pleasurable actions for their own sake
protoimperative early conversational acts whose purpose is to get another person to do something
protodeclarative early conversational acts whose purpose is to establish joint attention and sustain a dialogue
reactive attachment disorder a severe psychological disorder linked to a disruption in the development of the parent-child attachment relationship
reflex schemas a specific, well-integrated, automatic (involuntary) response to a specific type of stimulation
reflexes present at birth (know at least four) stepping, grasping, sucking,eyeblink
representations the ability to form mental symbols and present experiences to oneself mentally; according to Piaget, emerges during sensorimotor substage 6
scripts (cultural) event schemas the specify who participates in an event, what social roles they play, what objects they are to use during the event, and the sequence of actions that make up the event
secondary circular reaction behavior characteristic of the third substage of Piaget's sensorimotor stage, in which babies repeat actions to produce interesting changes in their environment
secure base Bowlby's term for the people whose presence provides the child with the security that allows him or her to make exploratory excursions
self-conscious emotions emotions such as embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, and envy, which emerge after 8 months with infants' growing consciousness of self
self-recognition able to recognize their own image in a mirror
semantic development learning meanings of words and combinations of words
sensorimotor development Piaget's term for the stage of infancy during which the process of adaptation consists largely of coordinating sensory perceptions and simple motor behaviors to acquire knowledge of the world
sensorimotor development: substage 1 (0 - 1 and 1/2 months) reflex schemas exercised: involuntary rooting, sucking, grasping, looking
sensorimotor development: substage 2 (1 and 1/2 - 4 months) primary circular reactions: repetition of actions that are pleasurable in themselves
sensorimotor development: substage 3 (4-8 months) secondary circular reactios: dawning awareness of the effects of one's own actions on the environment; extended actions that produce interesting change in the environment
sensorimotor development: substage 4 (8-12 months) coordination of secondary circular reactions: combining schemas to achieve a desired effect; earliest form of problem solving
sensorimotor development: substage 5 (12-18 months) tertiary circular reactions: deliberate variation of problem-solving means; experimentation to see what the consequences will be
sensorimotor development: substage 6 (18-24 months) beginnings of symbolic representation: images and words come to stand for familiar objects; invention of new means of problem solving through symbolic combinations
separation anxiety the distress that babies show when the person to whom they are attached leaves
sleep patterns in infants first 2-3 months of life, infants begin their sleep with active (REM) sleep and then fall into quiet (NREM) sleep. Then the sequence reverses and shifts toward the adult pattern. Newborns sleep 16 hrs/day, but longest period of sleep only 3-4 hrs
social referencing a form of secondary intersubjectivity in which infants look to their caregiver for an indication of how to feel and act on encountering an unfamiliar object or event
soma the cell body of the neuron
strange situation a procedure designed to assess children's attachment on the basis of their response to a stranger when they are with their mothers, when they are left alone, and when they are reunited with their mother
symbolic play play in which one object stands for, or represents, another
synapse the tiny gap between axons and dendrites
synaptic pruning the process of selective dying off of nonfunctional synapses
synaptogenesis the process of synapse formation
temperament term for individual modes of responding to the environment (emotion and behavior) that appear to be consistent across situations and are stable over time
temperament indicators (know at least three) activity level, adaptability, intensity of reaction
temporal lobe (function and location) right on top of brain stem, for hearing and speech
tertiary circular reactions 5th stage of the sensorimotor period, which is characterized by the deliberate variation of action sequences to solve problems and explore the world
theory theory the theory that young children have primitive theories about how the world works, which influence how children think about and act within specific domains
theory of mind the ability to think about other people's mental states and form theories of how they think
visual acuity of infants sharpness of vision. Newborns are very nearsighted
visual preference of infants infants prefer to see symmetrical faces instead of jumbled patterns
visual scanning in infants newborns actively scan their surroundings from the earliest days of life originating in the neural activity of CNS, primitive basis for looking behavior
Wernicke’s area the area that is central to processing sounds and comprehension; damage to the area results in an inability to comprehend language
Created by: luvlee
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards