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Merrill's Chapter 3

Joint and Bone Classification

QuestionAnswer
Long Bones Found only in limbs. Consist of long cylindric shaft (body) and two enlarged rounded ends.
Short Bones Cancellous bone. Red marrow Compact bone outer layer
Irregular Bones Shape and variety fits into no other catagory.
Flat Bones Consist largely of two table of compact bone with inner layer of cancellous bone and red marrow (diploid).
Sesamoid bones Small oval bones that develop inside/beside tendons.
Fibrous Joints Do not have joint cavity. United by fibrous and connective tissue. Strongest joints
Syndesmosis Fibrous joint immovable / slightly movable joint. United by sheets of fibrous tissue.
Suture Immovable fibrous joint only in skull interlocking bones
Gomphosis fibrous joint immovable joint only in roots of teeth
Cartilaginous Joints no joint cavity virtually immovable Hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
Symphysis Carilaginous joint Slightly movable pad of fibrocartilage hyaline cartilage ends Strength and shock absorb (Pubic symphysis)
synchondrosis cartilaginous joint immovable rigid cartilage uniting two bones (epiphyseal plate)
Synovial joint wide range of motion freely movable most complex Synovial capsule
Gliding (plane) Simplest synovial joint uniaxial movement Flat or slightly curved surface (intercarpal, intertarsal)
Hinge Synovial Uniaxial only flexion and extension (elbow, knee, ankle)
Pivot (trochoid) Synovial uniaxial rotate around single axis (atlas and axis)
Ellipsoid (condyloid) Synovial Biaxial two direction right angle movement Flexion, extension, adduction, abduction (radiocarpal joint in wrist)
Saddle (sellar) Synovial, biaxial movement, both concave and convex, side to side-up and down movement. carpometacarpal (thumb) is only one.
Ball and Socket (spheroid) synovial multiaxial movement flexion, extension, abduction,adduction, circumduction, rotation. Hip and shoulder
Functional Classification Synarthroses, amphiarthrosis, diarthroses
synarthroses immovable joint in functional classification system
amphiarthroes slightly movable joint in functional classification system
diarthroses freely movable joint in functional classification.
Define closed fracture Fracture that does not break through skin
Displaced fracture Serious fracture in which bones are not in an anatomic alignment
Non displaced fracture Fracture in which bones are in normal alignment
Open fracture Serious fracture in which bone projects through skin
3 types of fibrous joints syndesmosis, suture, gomphosis
2 types cartilaginous joints Symphysis, synchondrosis
6 synovial joints gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid ,saddle, ball and socket
Created by: 921