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Intro. to Pathology

Chapter 1

The study of diseases that can cause abnormalities in the structure or function of various organ systems Pathology
Sequence of events producing cellular changes that lead to observable changes or manifestations Pathogenesis
The study of the cause of a disease Etiology
Underlying cause is unknown idiopathic
the measurable or objective manifestations of the disease process...can be detected during an examination Signs
Subjective manifestations that are not measurable or observable....experience patient feels and describes Symptoms
A group of signs and symptoms that characterize a specific abnormal disturbance Syndrome
Quick onset and last a short period of time Acute
Manifest more slowly and last a very long time Chronic
Prevalence of a given disease...number of cases found in a given population Epidemiology
Number of new cases found in a given time period Incidence of disease
Number of deaths caused a particular disease averaged over a population Mortality rate
Incidence of sickness sufficient to interfere with an individual's normal daily routine Morbidity rate
An adverse response to medical treatment Iatrogenic
Infections developed at the acute care facility or from the healthcare environment Nosocomial
Contracted outside the healthcare facility Community acquired
Present at birth and resulting from genetic or environmental factors Congenital and hereditary
Caused by a deterioration of the body Degenerative
A disturbance of the normal physiologic function of the body Metabolic
Initial response of body tissue to local injury Inflammation
Produces a thick, yellow fluid Pyogenic bacteria
A localized, usually encapsulated collection of pus Abscess
Material that has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation Exudate
To pass or ooze through pores interstices, as a fluid Transudate
An accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities Edema
An interference with the blood supply to an organ or part of an organ depriving the organ's cells and tissues of oxygen & nutrients Ischemia
Localized area of ischemic necrosis within a tissue or organ produced by occlusion...death of a tissue due to interruption of the normal blood supply Infarct
Rupture of a blood vessel Hemorrhage
Blood is trapped within the body tissue resulting in accumulation Hematoma
Reduction in the size or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a corresponding decrease in function Atrophy
An increase in the size of the cells of a tissue or organ in response to a demand for increased function...generalized increase in cell size Hypertrophy
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ Hyperplasia
A loss in the uniformity of individual cells...abnormal changes of mature cells (precancerous) Dysplasia
Lack of normal development resulting in a small size or developmental failure resulting in the absence of an organ or tissue Aplasia
Absence of an organ Agenesis
Abnormal proliferation of cells that are no longer controlled Neoplasia
tumors (benign or malignant) Neoplasms
Without form Anaplastic
Closely resemble their cells of origin in structure & function. Does not spread to other sites Benign Neoplasm
Invade and destroy adjacent structures. Spread to distant sites (metastasizes) Malignant Neoplasm
Differences are small, grow slowly, low probability for malignancy Differentiated Cells
Cells exhibit atypical characteristics, rapid growth rate, higher probability Poorly or Undifferentiated Cells
Cancerous cells travel to a distant site or distant organ system Seeding
Major metastatic route for carcinomas especially breast and lung Lymphatic Spread
Cancerous cells invade circulatory system and spread via blood vessels Hematogenous Spread
Assess aggressiveness or degree of malignancy Grading
Refers to the extensiveness of a tumor at its primary site and presence or absence of metastases to lymph nodes and distant organs Staging
A tumor at its site of origin or the place where it started Primary
A tumor that forms as a result of metastases of cancer from the place where it originated from Secondary
Created by: scampie87