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Sociology Chapter 3

Essentials of Sociology

social environments the entire human environment, including direct contact with others
feral children children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans
socialization the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group-the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them
looking-glass self a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
significant others an individual who significantly influences someone else's life
generalized other the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people "in general"; the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self
id Freud's term for our inborn basic drives
ego Freud's term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of sociology
superego Freud's term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups
gender the behaviors and attitudes that a group considers proper for its males and females; masculinity and femininity
gender socialization the ways in which in which society sets children on different paths in life because they are male or female
peer group a group of individuals of roughly that same age who are linked by common interests
mass media forms of communications, such as radio, newspapers, and television that are directed to mass audiences
gender roles the behaviors and attitudes expected of people because because they are female or male
social inequality a social condition in which privileges and obligations are given to some but denied to others
agents of socialization people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
anticipatory socialization the process of learning in advance a role or status one anticipates having
resocialization the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
total institution a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them
degradation ceremony a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to remake someone's self by stripping away that individual's self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place
life course the stages of our life as we go from birth to death
transitional adulthood a term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood; also called adultolescence
Created by: khczopek