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Leach PSY chapter2

Leach PSY chapter 2

construct assumed to be present but cannot be seen or measured directly
hypothesis a prediction or assumption about behavior that is tested through scientific research
replicate to repeat a research study, usually with different participants and in different situations, to confirm the results of the original study
survey a research technique for acquiring data about the attitudes or begaviors of a group of people, usually by asking questions of a representative, random sample
target population the total group to be studied or described and from whom samples may be drawn
sample a representative segment of a target population
random sample a survey population, selected by chance, which fairly represents the general population
stratified sample a sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in the general population
bias a predisposition to a certain point of view
volunteer bias the concept that people who volunteer to participate in research studies often differ from those who do not volunteer
case study an in-depth study of a single person or group to reveal some universal principle
longitudinal method a type of research in which the same people are studied over a long time period
cross-sectional method a method of research that looks at different age groups at the same time in order to understand changes that occur during the life span
naturalistic observation the study of behavior in naturally occurring situations without manipulation or control on the part of the observer
laboratory observation the study of behavior in a controlled situation
correlation the relationship between variables
positive correlation a relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other variable also increases
negative correlation an unpleasant stimulus between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases
experiment a controlled scientific procedure to determine whether certain variables manipulated by the researcher have an effect on other variables
variables factors that are measured or controlled in a scientific study
independent variable the factor that is manipulated by the researcher to determine its effect on another variable
dependent variable in an experiment, the factor that is being measured and that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
experimental group in a study, the participants who receive the treatment
control group in an experiment, the group that does not receive the treatment
controlled experiment an experiment that uses both a control group and an experimental group to determine whether the independent variable influences behavior and, if so, how it does so
placebo an inert substance used in controlled experiments to test the effectiveness of another substance
single-blind study a study in which the participants are unaware of whether they are in the control group or the experimental group
double-blind study an experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the treatment or the placebo
standard deviation a measure of distance of every score to the mean
ethics rules and standards for proper and responsible behavior
informed consent an agreement by an individual to participate in research after receiving information about the purpose of the study and the nature of the treatment
Created by: CoachLeach
Popular Psychology sets




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