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antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
Sulfonamides: Action? Inhibit bacterial growth
Sulfonamides: Indications? UTI's, respiratory infections, pneumonias
Sulfonamides: SE/AE? Delayed reactions: fever, rash, GI, hepatic, renal, hematologic complications
Sulfonamides: Interactions? Significant reactions with many meds. Hypoglycemics, warfarin, phenytoin, immunosuppressants
Sulfonamides: Labs? Increased AST (asparatate aminotransferase); alkaline phosphate
Sulfonmides: Prototype? Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfamethoxazole: Indications? UTIs, ear infections, bronchitis, gonorrhea, general infections. Prophylaxis of HIV.
Sulfamethoxazole: Contraindications? Pregnancy at term, infants under 2 mo. Liver, renal disease, severe allergies. Drug to drug allergies.
4 classes of Beta-Lactams? Penicillin Cephalosporins Carbapenems Monbactams
Penicillins: Action? Inhibit cell wall synthesis. Limited to killing bacterial cells, not other cells in body.
Penicillins: Indications? Gram-positive strep, staph. Pneumonia, strep, syphillis
Penicillins: SE/AE? Hypersensitivity: uticaria, pruritis, angioedema. 10% are life threatening.
Penicillins: Interactions? Decrease effectiveness of warfarin, contraceptives.
Penicillins: Prototype? Amoxicillin
Which antibiotic (according to powerpoints) is used to treat cat scratch fever? Amoxicillin (really, it's azithromycin, a macrolide)
Amoxicillin: Indications? Ear, nose, throat, GU, skin infections.
Amoxicillin: Administration? 500 mg and 875 mg tablets. Avail in chewable tablets and pediatric drops.
Cephalosporins: What are they? Synthetic antibiotic derivative of cephalosporin C
Cephalosporins: Action? Bactericidal, interfere w/ bacterial cell wall synthesis.
Cephalosporins: Indications? Wide spectrum bacteria: gram-pos, gram-neg
What is the differentiation b/w 1st, 2nd, 3rd generation cephalosporins? 3rd generation is more effective on gram negatives.
Cephalosproins: SE/AE? Similar to penicillin. Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, rash, pruritus, redness.
Cephalosporin: Prototype? Cefazolin. First-generation cephalosporin
Trade names for cefazolin? Ancef, Kefzol
Cefazolin: indications? Gram-positive. Skin infections, pneumonia, UTI, bone/joint infections, septicemia, perioperative prophylaxis, billiary and genital infections. Bacterial endocarditis, prophylaxis for dental and upper respiratory tract procedures
Cefazolin: Routes? IM, IV. Parenteral
Carbapenems: Action? Interferes to cell wall synthesis. (like other beta-lactams)
Carbapenems: indications? very broad antimicrobial spectrum; most bacterial pathogens. Highly active against gram-positive cocci, Most gram-negative cocci and bacilli. Most effective beta-lactam against anaerobic bacteria
Carbapenems: contraindications? allergies to other beta-lactams may be cross-allergic
Carbapenems: SE/AE? Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Hypersensitivity reactions, rashes, pruritus, drug fever, suprainfections and rarely seizures
Carbapenems: Prototype? Imipenem (Primaxin)
Monobactams: I have no idea what we are supposed to know for these...
Macrolides: Action? Prevents bacterial protein synthesis
Macrolides: Protoypes? Erythromycin. Azithromycin (Zithromax)
Macrolides: Indications? Respiratory infections, skin infections, soft tissue infections.
Macrolides: SE/AE? GI are primary. Adverse effects include CV-palpitations,CNS- headache, rash, hearing loss.
Macrolides: Contraindications: Liver problems, drug to drug interactions.
Erythromycin: Indications? Diptheria, pneumonia, strep throat. Legionnaires’ disease, Bordatella pertussis (whooping cough), urethritis, cervicitis, respiratory infections, rheumatic fever, bacterial endocarditis.
Tetracyclines: Action? Inhibit protein synthesis. Prevent growth and repair of bacteria.
Tetracyclines: Indications? Wide range. Chlamydia, pneumonia, rickettsia, (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, Q fever), brucellosis, cholera, LYME DISEASE, ANTHRAX, gastric infection w/ H. pylori (peptic ulcer) Topically used for acne. Periodontal disease
Tetracyclines: Contraindications? Known drug allergy. Dairy products, antacids, penicillins, anticoags. Winnie: contraindicated in pregnant women and children under 8 y/o
Tetracyclines: SE/AE? Photosensitivity, discoloration of teeth, candida, diarrhea, pseudo colitis. hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity
Tetracycines: Prototypes? Doxycycline
Doxycycline: Indications? periodontal disease Lyme disease, anthrax, chlamydial infections, sexually acquired proctitis
Doxycycline: Side effects? Photosensitivity, candida, discoloration of teeth, diarrhea
Aminoglycosides: Protoype? Tobramycin
Aminoglycosides: Action? Bind to ribosomes and prevent protein synthesis
Aminoglycosides: Indications? Gram negative infections and some gram positive. Pseudomonas. Winnie: Ear infection, eye, skin.
Which aminoglycoside is used for TB? streptomycin (Winnie)
Aminoglycosides: SE/AE? Very potent, therefore can cause serious toxicities to kidneys (nephrotoxicity) and ears (ototoxicity)
Aminoglycosides: Interactions? Diuretics, skeletal muscle relaxants, anticoags.
Fluroquinolones: Action? Alters DNA of bacteria. Book says: disrupts DNA replication and cell division
Fluroquinolones: Indications? Bacterial infections (S. aureous), wide variety of gram pos and gram neg bacteria.
Fluroquinalones: SE/AE? Cardiac effects: prolonged QT interval. CNS, GI, skin. Book- can cause tendon rupture, i.e. Achilles
Fluroquinolones: Protoype/example? Ciprofloxacin
Ciprofloxacin: Indications? infections of respiratory tract, urinary tract, GI tract, bones, joints, skin and soft tissues, prevention of anthrax
Created by: kangaloo