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EDUC 382

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

systematic application of behavioral principles to change socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree. Research tools enable users of these principles to verify a functional relationship between a behavior and an intervention. applied behavior analysis
a statement that communicates a proposed change in behavior. A behavioral objective must include statements concerning the learner, the behavior, the conditions under which the behavior will be performed, and the criteria for evaluation. behavioral objective
a stimulus that has acquired a reinforcing function through pairing with an unconditioned or natural reinforcer; includes most social, activity, and generalized reinforcers. conditioned reinforcer
behaviors with a clearly discriminable beginning and ending. discrete behaviors
denying access to reinforcement by removing a student from an ongoing activity. exclusionary time-out
procedures (usually reversal design or multielement design) that test a hypothesized relationship by manipulating the variables thought to occasion or maintain a behavior in order to verify a functional relationship. functional analysis
gathering information in order to form a hypothesis as to variables occasioning or maintaining a behavior. May be done by interview, checklist, or direct observation. functional assessment
a reinforcer associated with a variety of behaviors or with access to a variety of other primary or secondary reinforcers; may simply be called generalized reinforcer. generalized conditioned reinforcer
a behavior that resembles the terminal behavior (the ultimate goal of the intervention) along some significant dimension and that the student is already capable of performing (used with shaping) initial behavior
any change in a person's environment that is designed to change that person's behavior. intervention
demonstrating a desired behavior in order to prompt an imitative response. modeling
the contingent removal of an aversive stimulus immediately following a response. Negative reinforcement increases the future rate and/or probability of the response. negative reinforcement
the delivery of reinforcers at predetermined intervals regardless of student behavior noncontingent reinforcement (NCR)
time-out procedure where the student is not removed from the instructional setting in which reinforcers are being dispensed. The teacher denies access to reinforcement andmanipulates the environment tosignal a period of time during which access is denied. nonseclusionary time-out
the arragnement of environmental variables to establish a functional relationship between a voluntary behavior and its consequences operant conditioning
the contingent presentation of a stimulus immediately following a response, which increases the future rate and/or probability of the response. Written as S^R+ positive reinforcement
a consequent stimulus (S^R) that increases or maintains the future rate and/or probability of occurrence of a behavior. reinforcer
the process of pairing stimuli so that an unconditioned stimulus elicits a response. Most such responses are reflexive; they are not under voluntary control. respondent conditioning
a time-out procedure that removes the student from the instructional setting as the means of denying access to reinforcement. seclusionary time-out
teaching new behaviors through differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a specified target behavior. shaping
a category of secondary reinforcers that includes facial expressions, proximity, contact, privileges, words, and phrases. social reinforcers
making reinforcement gradually available less often or contingent on greater amounts of appropriate behavior. thinning
an observational recording system in which an observation period is divided into equal intervals; the target behavior is observed at the end of each interval time sampling
a stimulus that results in physical pain or discomfort to an individual (also called universal, natural, or unlearned aversive stimulus). unconditioned aversive stimulus
Created by: jauthement