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### Darcie Chap 1-4: Physics pt 1

What is the definition of a natural science? A science that deals with the objects, phenomena, or laws of nature and the physical world.
What are the 2 branches of natural sciences? Physical & Biological
What are the 4 Physical Sciences? Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy-heavenly bodies, Geology-study of the earth
What are the 4 Biological Sciences? Zoology-animals, Botany-plants, Virology-viruses, Anatomy-study of body structure.
What is Chemistry? The study of matter & how it changes.
What is Physics? The study of energy & matter & their relationship
What are the 3 measurable quantities or Standards? Length, Mass, Time ((Base building blocks of all other quantities)
What are the 3 TYPES or systems of units we use? Conventional/Amer-Inches,pounds,seconds; CGS/Brit--centimeters,grams,seconds ; MKS-meters,kilograms,seconds (SI/metric/MKS)
What is energy? The ability to do work (work =force applied over a distance)
What is matter? Anything that occupies space
What are the 3 forms of matter? Liquid, solid, gas
What is mass? The quantity of matter (weight). (Kg, G, or Lb's)
What is Power? What is the formula for Power? The Rate of doing work. P=work/t=F*d/t (work=F*d & F=m*a)
How is Power measured? By Watts (amperage*voltage)
What is Potential Energy? Energy at rest
What is Kinetic Energy? Energy in motion
What is work? Formula: The force applied times the distance over which it is applied. W=F*d (Joules)
What is weight? The force on a body caused by the pull of gravity (the product of mass & acceleration of gravity on Earth or Moon)
What is Momentum? Formula? Product of mass & velocity(speed) represented by P. P=m*v (Kg per meter per second)
What is the measurement for energy? Joules
What is Force? Formula? (2nd Law of Motion) A push or pull (exerted) on an object. F=m*a (Newtons) The force that acts on an object is equal to mass of object multiplied by the acceleration produced
What is Acceleration? Formula: (Speeds Up)The rate of change of velocity with time. v(overscore)=(V subf + v sub0)/2 (f=final & 0=initial) Deceleration/slows down
What is Velocity? Formula: Speed: A measure of how fast something is moving, or the rate of change of its position with time. v=d/t (d is distance traveled in time t)
What are statics? Objects at rest.
What are dynamics? Objects in motion.
What are the 7 derived quantities? Energy, work, Power, Momentum, force, velocity, acceleration
What are the 4 Special quantities? Exposure, Dose, Equivilant dose, Activity
What is the mechanics of physics? A segment of physics that deals with static & dynamic objects.
What is Exposure? The measure of (quantity) ionizations produced IN AIR by xray or gamma rays--Conv=(R)Roentgens, SI=2.58x10^(-4)C/Kg
What is Newton's Law of Conservation of Energy & Matter? Energy/Matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it simply changes from one form to another.
What is Thermal Energy (heat)? The kinetic energy of the random motion of molecules
What are the Conventional & SI measurements for patient dose? R--Roentgen = Conventional. 2.58 x 10^4C/kg = SI (C--Coulomb=charge/unit of electrical quantity
What is dose? Amount of radiant energy absorbed in any tissue (air,fat,muscle,bone)
Define Gamma rays: Natural-coming from inside the nucleus of an atom.
Define X-rays: Man-made--produced outside the nucleus of an atom.
What is a second? Standard unit of time based upon the vibration of atoms of cesium.
1 yard = ___ meter 0.9144m
1 inch = ___ cm 2.54cm
1 pound = ___ Kg 2.2Kg
1 inch = ___ meter 0.0254M
What are the 2 types of rays we are mainly exposed to? Gamma (natural or nuc med pat's) & Xray (minor secondary scatter from patient or leakage from tube also)
What is LET? Linear Energy Transfer--The measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue: (keV/µm=kilo electron volts/micronmeter)(Alt method of expressing rad Qulty & determ rad. weighting factor)
Is high or low LET more ionizing? High: Low is xray & gamma only. High is beta particles, neutrons, & alpha particles.
When is the only time you should possibly be exposed to beta particles or neutrons? From Radiation Therapy patients
How does High LET transfer its energy? High LET deposits all of its energies in the form of ionization on or near the skin level
What is absorbed dose? Energy transferred from ionizating radiation (any type-beta,x,gamma,neutron) per unit mass of irradiated matter (any tissue--air,fat,muscle,bone)
What is the measurement of exposure (absorbed dose)in Patients for conventional & SI? Rads=Conventional; Grays=S/I; 100 Rads= 1Gy
What is Dose Equivalent? Personnel dose measurement of quantity & quality for radiation exposure.
What is the measurement of Dose Equivalent (Personnel dose) for Conventional & SI? Rem (radiation equiv to man)=conventional; sV (sievert)= S/I; (1sV = 100rem) Formula:Rad or (Gy)(exposure factor)x weighting factor=REM (sv)
Gray's go with ___ Sievert's
If you have 3 mRad with a weighting factor of 3, what would your dose equivalent be? 9msV
What are the 4 ways we measure radioactivity? Curie (Ci)--conventional; Becquerel (Bq)--S/I; Half-Life Physical--sits on table, reaches each 1/2 life; Half Life Biological-- physical + once in your body start metabolizing/breaking it down (based upon an avg.)
What is Chemical energy? Energy released by a chemical reaction (ie- latent image/auto processor, osld, etc.)
What is Mechanical energy? Involves both potential & kinetic--converts motion into current (ie: hand-crank light bulb, windmill, generators, etc.)
What is Electrical energy? The flow of current; when the circut is closed, current will flow (movement of electrons across tube=tube current)
What is a Circuit? The pathway for a current to flow. The circuit must be closed for the current to flow. If light switch off, circuit open, if on, it's closed, lights work.
3 ways to Transfer heat energy? Conduction=touching/rubbing/friction; Convection=mechanical transfer from hot gas/liquid to another place(radiator/furnace); Radiation--vibration of electrons thru body gives off heat (or reddish glow emitted by hot objects evidence of heat transfer)
What are the 3 measurements of temperature? Fahrenheit (US) = 9/5c+32 Celsius =5/9(f-32) Kelvin (scientific)
What form of energy are Xrays & gamma rays? Electromagnetic radiation
Visible light, microwaves, infrared,& Rf waves are _____ Non-ionizing
Cosmic, UV, & x, & gamma rays are _____ Ionizing
Where do we use RF waves in diagnostic? MRI
High Kvp, ____ energy ____ wavelength ____frequency high, short, high
Wavelengths are measured in ______ angstroms (A°)
Frequency is measured in _____ Hertz (Hz)
What is Nuclear Energy? Energy contained w/in the nucleus (of an atom)
What are 2 types of particulate radiation? Alpha & beta particles
What is Half-Life? Amount of time for radio-active source to reduce to 1/2 of it's intensity (never reaches 0); (use semi-log form for more than 3 half-lifes)
What is the diagnostice range of wavelengths? .1 to .5 A° (angstrom)
What is Physical 1/2 life? Natural decay time (sit on table)
What is Biological 1/2 life? Physical + metabolic (based upon an avg body)
What is a Photon? What is an Xray Photon? A discreet bundle of energy. Smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy.
What is Electromagnetic Attenuation? Reduction in intensity that results from scattering & absorbtion.
What is a wavelength? The distance from crest to crest (λ)
What is frequency (f)? Number of wavelengths per given unit (Hz per second)
What type of relationship does wavelength & frequency have at a given velocity? Indirectly Proportional
Characteristic Xrays have ______ type of energy & ______ wavelengths Monoenergetic; Homogeneous
Brem's Xrays have ____ type of energy & ____ wavelengths Polyenergetic; heterogeneous
What is ionization? Removal/addition of an electron from an atom's shell
Xray Voltage is measured in ____ Kilovolts Peak (Kvp)
Xray (tube) Current is measured in ____ milliamperage (mA)
For a satisfactory xray, you must have ____voltage & _______ electric current high; sufficient
What is Inertia? (1st Law of Motion) Resistance to change of any kind of motion (stay still or keep moving). A body will remain at rest/continue to move w/constant velocity in a straight line unless acted on by external force.
Action/Reaction: Newton's 3rd Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction (push/pull)
Trace Path of Energy thru Xray Production: K=Kinetic P=Potential T=Thermal TIE=ThermoIonic Emmission X=Xray Flow of current= K Cathode=P Rotar/heat filament=T Filament boils off=TIE Boiled off,sitting=P Exposure switch/pot diff=K Tungsten Target,stops=T & X
What is Analysis? breaking it down
What is Synthesis? putting it back together
What is a Hypothesis/Theory? an Idea/conclusions
What is a Law? A proven Theory or Hypothosis
What are the steps of the scientific method? 1. ask qu's 2. plan your method 3. experiment 4. collect/record data 5. come to conclusion 6. research topic 7. think of idea/theory
What is Radiobiology? Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biologic tissue
What is an atom? The smallest particle of an element that cannot be divided/broken by chemical means (& still has properties of element)
What is an element? A substance that can't be broken down any further without changing it's chemical properties
What is Ionization? Knocks/adds an electon out of shell
What is Excitation? Vibration-not strong enough to knock of shell, but sits & vibrates
Describe how changes at the atomic level can lead to a dysplastic cell: change in an atom= change in a molecule= change in a cell= change in a tissue= cancer (dysplastic cell)
On the Periodic Table, each Verticle group/family represents what? Elements with similar chemical properties (most important classification)
On the Periodic Table, each Horizontal Period represent what? Elements with the same # of electron shells BUT different chemical properties
Name the historical atomic structures: Bohr (current) Thomson Dalton Greek (medievel-oldest) 1.Nucleus & orbital electron @ periphery. 2. carrots or plum pudding 3. balls w hooks 4. 4 separate pyramids (earth, wind, fire, water)
What is the Nucleus? Positive center of an atom
What are the 3 fundamental particles of an atom? Proton+, Neutron0, Electron-
What is the Chemical Element? The number of protons
What are Nucleuns? Particles of the nucleus--protons & neutrons
What is an Isotope? Atom w/same # of protons, but different # of neutrons (=different mass #)
What is a Proton? Positive particle in the nucleus
What is an electron? Negative particle of an atom that orbits @ in shells. Period that it belongs to corresponds with # of shells.
What is a neutron? Uncharged/neutral particle in nucleus that contributes to the mass/weight but not the charge
What does the Mass # (A#) represent? Total # of protons & neutrons in an atom (located at the top R of the element)
What does the Atomic # (Z#) represent? Number of Protons in an atom (located at bottom R of element)
What is the K-shell? Inner most shell/orbit of an atom--most tightly bound; #1, (other shells #'d progressively after: L=2, M=3, N=4,etc)
What is the shell formula? 2N² (max 32 in outer orbit)
What are the 4 causes of ionization? 1. Exposure to X or Gamma rays (patient) 2. Exposure to stream of e- (tube) 3. Spontaneous breakdown of radioactive nuclides (actinium, thorium, uranium) (Physical vs. biological 1/2 life) 4. Exposure of certain elements to light (OSLD, IRs-barium hali
What is a Chemical Compound? any quantity of one type of molecules
What is the Octet Rule? Group of 8 electrons in outermost shell under normal means cannot chemically bind
What is Valence? Outer shell: determines binding (if less than 8 can chemically combine either covalently or ionically
What is a Covalent Bond? When 2 atoms share the same electron (like oxygen & hydrogen for example)
What is an Ionic Chemical Bond? When one atom gives up an electron(becomes more +) & another atom takes on the electron (becoming more -)
What are the 2 definitions of a molecule? 1. An electrically neutral group of at least 2 atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong covalent chemical bonds. 2. Smallest particle of a substance retaining both chemical & physical properties & composed of 2 or more.
What is a Compound? Pure chemical substance sonsisting of 2 or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
What is a Substance? A biological entity (medication).