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psych 10: quiz 1

info from ch 1, 2, 3

QuestionAnswer
Albert Bandura proposed the theories of modeling and self-efficacy
Charles Darwin emergence of developmental science through his theory of human evolution
Jean-Marc Itard took in "Wild Boy", proposed that his isolation from society presented him from developing normally
Jean Piaget emphasized children's active role in shaping their own cognitive environment, constructivist theory, children construct high levels of knowledge by actively striving to master their environment
Uri Bronfenbrenner devised model of ecological systems theory: microsystem, mesostystem, exosystem, macrosystem
William Preyer proposed "rules of observation"
Konrad Lorenz proposed the theory of critical period in newly hatched geese, ex. imprinting
Lev Vygotsky developed sociocultural theory, emphasis on social interaction as the primary source of development
action research "mission-oriented research", primarily to provide data that can be used in social policy decision making
adoption study a study in which genetically related individuals who are raised in different family environments or genetically unrelated individuals living in the same family are compared to determine the extent to which heredity or environment controls a given trait
amnion a thin, tough, transparent membrane that holds the amniotic fluid
applied research designed to answer practical questions related to improving children's lives and experiences
Apgar Scale a quick, simple test used to diagnose the physical state of newborn infants
assimilation and accommodation assim: individuals incorporate new experiences into their existing schemas, strengthening those schemas; accom: individuals modify a schema so it can be applied to both old and new experiences
Baldwin effect the role culture factors in determining which phenotypes are adaptive
basic research goal is to advance scientific knowledge of human development
behavior modification a technique for breaking the associations between the behaviors and the environmental consequences that maintain them
Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale a scale used to assess the newborn's neurological condition
cephalocaudal pattern the pattern of development that proceeds from the head down
chorion one of the membranes that develops out of the trophoblast, it forms the fetal component of the placenta
chromosomal disorders as result of a breakdown in the process of genetic transmission, affecting the structure of chromosomes in the cell
cleavage the series of cell divisions that form the zygote into the blastocyst
coevolution the combined process that emerges from the interaction of biological evolution and cultural evolution
correlation and correlational method corr.: the condition that exists between 2 factors when changes in 1 factor are associated with changes in the other; corr. method: measuring 2 or more factors & then analyzing whether variations in 1 factor are linked systematically to var. in another
context include physical environments, cultural beliefs, family and peers, school, government, neighborhood, community
contexts of development include physical environments, cultural beliefs, family and peers, etc. both resources and risks that profoundly shape the course of children's development
continuity/discontinuity con.: gradual accumulation of small changes; discon.: series of abrupt, radical changes
criteria for developmental research objectivity, reliability, replicability, and validity
critical period a period during which specific biological or environmental events are required for normal development to occur
cross-sectional design a research design in which children of various ages are studied at the same time
cumulative cultural evolution the dynamic ongoing process of cultural change as a consequence of variation that individuals have produced in the cultural tools they use
developmental science the field of study that focuses on the physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes that children undergo from conception onward
developmental stage a qualitatively distinctive coherent pattern of behavior that emerges during the course of development
domains of development major areas of development: social, emotional, cognitive (intellectual), and physical
Down Syndrome is a consequence of a disruption in the normal process of genetic transmission, error during meiosis that creates extra genetic material on chromosome 21
ecological systems theories theory focusing o the organization and interactions of the multiple environmental contexts within which children develop
effects of smoking on pregnancy low birth weight and increase rate of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death
equilibration the main source of development, consisting of a process of achieving a balance between the child's present understanding and the child's new experiences
Erikson's psychosocial stages quest for identity, each stage has a crisis they must resolve and a person's personality and sense of identity are formed in the resolution of these crises
ethical standards in research freedom from harm, informed consent, confidentiality
ethology an interdisciplinary science that studies the biological and evolutionary foundations of behavior
evolutionary theory theory that explains human behavior in terms of how it contributes to the survival of a species ant that look at how our evolutionary past influences individual development
fetal alcohol syndrome syndrome found in babies whose mothers were heavy consumers of alcohol while pregnant, symptoms include undeveloped brain and malformations of the face
the five periods of development prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence
genetic counseling through genetic testing, counselors inform prospective parents about the genetic conditions that put their child at risk
genotype and phenotype gen.: the segments on a DNA molecule that act as hereditary blueprints for the organism's development; phen.: the organism's observable characteristics that result from the interaction of the genotype with the environment
germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods germ: begins at conception & lasts until the develop. organism is attached to the wall of uterus 8-10 days later; emb: time attached to uterus until 8th wk, when all major organs hav primitive shape; fet: first signs of hardening bones continues til bir
gestation age the time that has passed between conception and birth, usually between 37-43 weeks
heritability a measure of the degree to which a variation in a particular trait among individuals in a specific population is related to genetic differences among those individuals
heterochrony variability in the rates of development of different parts of an organism
heterogeneity variability in the levels of development of different parts of the organism at a given time
HIV and pregnancy may be passed through the placenta barrier of exposure to mother's infected blood during delivery
individual differences only moderate stability of traits in childhood; are we different due to nature or nurture?
information-processing theories theories that look at cognitive development in terms of how children come to process, store, organize, retrieve, and manipulate information in increasingly efficient ways
kinship studies the use of naturally occurring conditions provided by kinship relations to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to a phenotypic trait
Klinefelter's Syndrome sex-linked chromosome abnormality in which males are born with an extra X chromosome (XXY)
lactose tolerance the ability to digest fresh milk,an example of coevolution in that people started to drink milk for thirst (culture) and people with lactase allele generally survived because they could digest the milk
longitudinal design a research design in which data are gathered about the same group of people as they grow older over an extended period of time
low birth weight babies weighing 2500 grams or less at birth, whether or not they are premature
mediation how cultural tools organize people's activities and ways of relating to their environments
methods of data collection in developmental research naturalistic observation, experiments, and clinical interviews
miniature adult view before 16th century, no understanding of childhood as a unique period of life, projecting adult-like body proportions and clothing, behaving like adults
modeling the process by which children observe and imitate others
naturalistic observation observation of the actual behavior of people in the course of their everyday lives
nature and nurture nature: the inherited biological predispositions of an individual; nurture: the influences of the social and cultural environment on the individual
phenlketonuria a recessive disorder, leads to severe mental retardation if not treated, caused by a defective recessive allele
Piaget's stages of cognitive development cognitive development results from children's active construction of reality based on their experiences with the world: sensorimotor (birth-2), preoperational (2-6), concrete operational (6-12), formal operational (12-19)
phenotypic canalization a trait that follows a strictly defined path, regardless of most environmental and genetic variations
phenotypic plasticity the degree to which the phenotype is open to influence be the environment, rather than determined by the genotype
plasticity the degree to & conditions under which development is open to change and intervention
preterm the term for babies born before the 37th week of pregnancy
proximodistal pattern the pattern of development that proceeds from the middle of the organism out to the periphery
psychodynamic theories of development theories, such as those of Freud and Erikson, exploring the influence on development and developmental stages of universal biological drives and the life experiences of individuals
psychosexual stages Freud's theory: behavior of children motivated by need to satisfy sexual drive, the stages related to the parts of the body upon which gratification is focused
Puritan child-rearing harsher child-rearing practices, which followed the belief that children are born in original sin; obedience and submission to authority, limit arousal
recapitulation development of knowledge in individual children corresponds to the development of knowledge in the history of science
recessive disorders a disorder caused by a specific genetic material inherited by the individual through the normal process of genetic transmission, the parents being carriers of a recessive allele
rubella and pregnancy German measles, can also cause congenital heart disease, cataracts, deafness, and mental retardation in half of babies born to women with this disease during first 12 weeks of pregnancy
sensitive period a time in an organism's development when a particular experience has an especially profound effect
Sickle-cell Anemia ex. of coevolution, a recessive-gene disorder, in West Africa people with the sickle-cell trait are resistant to malaria which the trait is so frequent there as apposed to the US
social learning theories theories that focus on development as a result of learning, changes in behavior as a result of forming associations between behavior and its consequences
sociocultural theory the theory associated with Vygotsky that emphasizes the influence of culture on development
stage theory elements in systems move through a pattern of distinct stages over time and that these stages can be described based on their distinguishing characteristics
symbolic tools cultural tools, such as abstract knowledge, beliefs and values
systems theories theories that envision development in terms of complex wholes made up of parts and that explore how these wholes and their parts are organized and interact and changeover time
teratogens environmental agents that can cause deviations from normal development and can lead to abnormalities or death
twin study a study in which groups of identical and fraternal twins of the same sex are compared to each other and to other family members for similarity on a given trait
zone of proximal development for Vygotsky,the gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent
zygote the single cell formed at conception from the union of sperm and the ovum
Created by: luvlee