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Psychology!

Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Established first psychology laboratory at the Univ. of Leipez Wilhelm Wundt
Controversial ideas of famous personality Theorist and Theopist influenced humanities self-understandment Sigmund Freud
Legendary teacher-writer of psychology. His student became famous for her memory research and 1st women president of the American Psychological Ass. William James & Mary Whiton Calkins
First Woman to receive a psychology Ph.D at Harvard she focused on animal behavior research on Animal mind Margaret Floy Washburn
Championed psychology as the scientific study of behavior. Both showed fear could by learned, in experiments on a baby who became famous as "little albert" Rosalie Rayner
Leading Behavorist rejected the idea of studying inner thoughts and feelings. He studied how consequences shape behavior B.F Skinner
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology
Science supports thinking that examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs, evidence, and tests conclusions. Science aided thinking is smart thinking Critical Thinking
Considers three sets of influences: biological, psychological, and social-cultural. Biopsychosocial approach
-genetic predispostions -genetic mutations -natural selection of adaptive phsiology and behaviors -genes responding to the enviroments Biological Influences
-learned fears and other learned expectations -emotional responses -cognitive processing and perceptual Interpretations Psychological Influences
-presence of others -cultural, societal, and family expectations -peer and other group influences -compelling models(such as in the media) Social-cultural Influences
the study of positive emotions, positive character traits, enabling institutions Positive Psychological
The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon Hindsight bias
Behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed Theory
Predictions that let us test the theory Hypothesis
Examines one individual in great depth, in the hope of revealing things true of us all Case Study
Questions about sexual practices to political opinions get put to the public Survey
Statistical measure helps us find how closely two things vary together and thus how well either one predicts the other Correlation
1)manipulating the factors of interest 2)holding constant("controlling") other factors Experiments
receives treatment Experimental group
Without the treatment Control group
Survey, Questions, read,Rehearse, Review SQ3R
Nerve Cell Neuron
Fibers receive messages and conduct them toward the cell body Dendrite
Sends out messages to other neurons or to muscles or gland Axon
Messages that neurons carry are nerve impulses Action Potentials
Meeting Places: two neurons are seperated by tiny gap less than a millionth of an inch wide. Synapses
At the synapse, the impulse triggers the release of __ molecules Neurotransmitter
The brain and Spinal chord: the body's decision maker Central nervous system(cns)
responsible for gathering information and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
Electrical cables formed bundles of axons, link the central nerve system with the body's sensory receptors, muscles, and glands Nerves
Carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory receptors inward to the brain and spinal chord, for processing. Sensory neurons
The central nervous system thedn sends instructions out to the body's tissue via the ___ The Motor neurons
Controls voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles Somatic nervous system
Controls your glands and the muscles of yout internal organs, including those of your heart and digestive system Autonomic nervous system
The division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations Sympathetic nervous System
the division of the automatic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy Parasympathetic nervous system
The brains oldest and innermost region. beginning where the spinal chord swells as it enters the skull: responsible for automatic survival functions Brainstem
area at top of brainstem, directs sensory messages to the cortex anda transmitts replies to the cerebellum and medulla Thalamus
Recording Apparutus, using electrodes placed on the scalp, thawt records waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface EEG(Electroencephalograph)
a view of brain activity showing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task PET(positron emission tomogrphy)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Scans show brain anatomy MRI(magnetic resonance imaging)
an individuals characteristics pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Personality
Frued's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; The techniques used in treating __ disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions Psychoanalysis
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressives drives. Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification id
the largely conscious 'executive' part of personality that balances the demands of the id, superego, and reality Ego
The part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement(conscious) Superego
the childhood stages of developmental(oral,anal,phallic,latency,genital)during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones psychosexual stages
in psychoanalytic theory,the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Defense mechanisms
Maslow's pyramid of human needs; at the base are physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher-level saftey needs, and then psychological needs, became active Hierachy of needs
According to maslow, the psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill our potential self-actualization
your feelings of high or low self worth Self-esteem
giving priority to our own goals over group goals and defining our identity in terms of personal traits rather than group membership Individualism
The base of the brain stem; controls heartbeat and breathing Medulla
get information into the brain Encoding
The retention of encoded information overtime Storage
Process of Getting information back out of memory storage Retrieval
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Sensory Memory
activated memory that holds a few items breifly, such as the 7 digits of a # while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten Short-term memory
involves concsious, active processing of incoming information and of information retrieved from long-term memory working memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge,skills and experience Long-term memory
unconscious encoding of everyday information such as space, time, frequency, and well-learned word meanings Automatic Processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Effortful processing
The conscious repetition of information either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage Rehearsal
Created by: debrahollins11