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Chapter 2 Test

PSY 2012

QuestionAnswer
Neurons individual cell that is the smallest unit of the nervous system
Dendrites short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages
Axon single long fiber extending from the cell body; it carries outgoing messages
Myelin Sheath white fatty covering on axons
Sensory Neurons neurons that carry incoming messages from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain
Motor Neurons neurons that carry from spinal cord or brain to muscles and glands
Interneurons neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another
Mirror Neurons specialized neurons that respond when we observe others perform behavior or express an emotion
Glial Cells cells that insulate and support neurons; provide nourishment, remove waste and form myelin sheath
Neural Impulse firing of a nerve cell
Resting Potential electrical charge across a neuron membrane resulting from more positive ions concentrated on the outside and more negative ions on the inside
Threshold of Excitation level an impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to fire
All-or-None law principle that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength; either the neuron fires at full strength or it does not fire at all
Synaptic Space tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
Terminal Button structure at the end of an axon terminal branch
Receptor Sites locations on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock
Neural Plasticity the ability of the brain to change in response to experience
Central Nervous System (CNS) division of the nervous system that consists of the spinal cord and brain
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) division of the nervous system that connects the the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Somatic Division carries information to the CNS from the senses and from the CNS to the skeletal muscles
Autonomic Division regulates internal environment; carries information from the CNS to organs, blood vessels and glands
Medulla structure in the hindbrain that controls essential life support functions including breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
Cerebellum structure in the hindbrain that controls certain reflexes and coordinates the body's movements
Midbrain contains thalamus, hypothalamus and reticular formation ... region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; hearing, sight and one of the places pain is registered
Thalamus forebrain region that relays and translates incoming messages from the sense receptors, EXCEPT smell "Relay station"
Hindbrain area that contains the medulla, pons and cerebellum
Cerebral Cortex outer surface of the two cerebral hemispheres that regulates most complex behavior
Limbic System ring of structures that plays a role in learning and emotional behavior
Frontal Lobe coordinate messages from other cerebral lobes; involved in complex problem-solving tasks
Parietal Lobe receives sensory information from sense receptors all over the body; also involved in spatial abilities
Temporal Lobe involved in complex visual tasks; balance; regulates emotions; strong role in understanding language
Occipital Lobe receives and processes visual information
Spinal Cord runs down the spine, connecting the brain to the rest of the body "Communication Superhighway"
Endocrine Glands tissues that produce and release horomones
Hormones chemical substances released by glands to regulate bodily activities
Pineal Gland located in the center of brain; regulates activity levels
Thyroid Gland controls metabolic rates; located below voice box; produce thyroxin
Parathyroids four tiny glands embedded in the thyroid
Pituitary Gland gland located on the underside of the brain; it produces the largest number of the body's hormones
Pancreas organ lying between the stomach & small intestine secretes insulin & glucagon to regulate blood-sugar levels
Adrenal Glands two endocrine glands located just above the kidneys
Gonads reproductive glands .. testes in males and ovaries in females
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) 23 chromosomes (1 being largest; 23 being smallest)
Dominant Genes member of a gene pair that controls the appearance of certain traits
Recessive Genes member of a gene pair that can control the appearance of a certain trait ONLY IF IT IS paired w/another recessive gene
Polygenic Inheritance process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits
Genotype an organism's entire unique genetic makeup
Phenotype the characteristics of an organism; determined by both genetics and experience
Strain Studies studies of the heritability behavioral traits using animals that have been inbred to produce strains that are genetically similar to one another
Selection Studies studies that estimate the heritability of a trait by breeding animals with other animals that have the same trait
Created by: stagemngr