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Culture SOCI1010

Introduction to Sociology Chp 2: Culture, De More

culture the ways of thinking, acting and the material objects that together, form a people's way of life
society people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
culture shock personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
symbol anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
language a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
cultural transmission the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Sapir-Whorf thesis the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
values culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living (equal opportunity, individualism etc)
beliefs specific ideas that people hold to be true
norms rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
mores norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance (incest)
folkways norms for routine or casual interaction
technology knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
hunting and gathering the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
horticulture the use of hand tools to raise crops
pastoralism domestication of animals
agricultural large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
industry the production of good using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
postindustrialism the production of information using computer technology
high culture cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
popular culture cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
subculture cultural patterns that set apart a segment of of society's population
multiculturalism a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United sates and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
Eurocentrism the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
Afrocentrism emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns
counterculture cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
cultural integration the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
cultural lag the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
ethnocentrism the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
cultural relativism the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
cultural universals traits that are part of every known culture (ex: incest taboo)
sociobiology a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
Created by: MrsAFlaherty