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A&P & Positioning

A&P & Positioning test 1

anatomy the term applied to the science of the structure of the body
physiology the study of the function of the body
pathology the study of disease
osteology the detailed study of the body of knowledge relating to the bones of the body
anatomical position standing upright, limbs extended facing front, palms facing front, and feet together
supine lying on back, palms up
prone lying face down, palms down
what are the four fundamental body planes -sagittal -coronal -horizontal -oblique
sagittal plane divides the body into right and left segments(midsagittal divides into equal halves)
coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior segments(midcoronal divides into equal anterior and posterior halves)
horizontal plane passes crosswise through the body or body part at a right angle to the longitudinal axis, divides body into superior and inferior portions(also called transverse, axial, or cross-sectional)
oblique plane passes through a body part at any angle between the other three planes
transects the body at the pelvis at the top of the iliac crests(level of L4-L5) interiliac plane
occlusal plane formed by the biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with jaws closed
what are the four divisions of the body -head -neck -trunk -limbs
what are the two great cavities of the body -thoracic cavity -abdominopelvic cavity
what are the nine regions of the abdomen *superior region -right and left hypochondrium -epigastrium *middle region -right and left lateral -umbilical *inferrior region -right and left inguinal -hypogastrium
the armpit axilla
the area of the oblique crease on the front of the body where the lower limb joins the trunk in front of the hip. this crease marks the location of the inguinal ligament groin
area of the abdominal surface lateral to the umbilical region lumbar region
space between the upper thighs, and between the anus and vulva in a female and between the anus and scrotum in a male perineum
what are the four major body habitus -sthenic(50%) -hyposthenic(35%) -asthenic(10%) -hypersthenic(5%)
what can body habitus affect -positioning -image receptor selection -technique selection
which body habitus causes the body organs to set lower and more midline asthenic
which body habitus causes the body organs to set higher and more peripheral hypersthenic
what is the most common body habitus sthenic
what body habitus is between sthenic and asthenic hyposthenic
what are the ten systems of the human body -skeletal -digestive -respiratory -reproductive -integumentary -nervous -endocrine -muscular -circulatory -urinary
what are the functions of bone -attachment for muscles -mechanical basis for movement(lever) -protection of internal organs -support frame for body -storage for calcium, phosphorus, and other salts -production of red and white blood cells
how many total bones in the body 206
what are the two types of skeleton -axial skeleton(80 bones) -appendicular(126 bones)
supports and protects the head and trunk(includes the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs) axial skeleton
provides means for movement(includes upper limbs, shoulder girdle, lower limbs, and pelvic girdle) appendicular skeleton
tough, fibrous connective tissue that covers bone, except at articular ends. It has two layers -outer layer is dense and fibrous -inner layer is composed of osteoblasts -blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the bone through the periosteum periosteum
located under the periosteum -strong, dense outer layer that gives strength to the bone, resembles ivory compact bone(cortical)
porous, loosely knit,forms a thin layer under compact bone along the shaft; forms majority of the bone at the end of long bones -this is the inner less dense layer -contains a spiculated network called trabeculae spongy bone(cancellous)
what can be found in the trabeculae red and yellow marrow
what produces red and white blood cells red marrow
yellow marrow stores what fat cells
-central cavity of long bones -contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow -red marrow found in ends of long bone medullary cavity
lines mudullary cavity endostium
near center of long bones, passes into medullary cavity, carries nutrient artery to cancellous(spongy) bone and marrow nutrient foramen
the term that applies to the development and formation of bones -begins in the second month of embryonic life ossification
what are the two types of ossification -intermembranous(flat bone) -endochondral(all other bones)
begins before birth and forms long central shaft in long bones. growth takes place in diaphysis(also makes up majority of short and irregular bones) primary endochondral ossification
occurs after birth when separate bones begin to develop at both ends of long bones -epiphyseal plates(hyaline cartilage) -bones development is usually complete by age 21) secondary endochondral ossification
the end of a long bone that is originally seperated from the main bone by a layer cartilage epiphysis
the shaft of a long bone, between the epiphysis diaphysis
the portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis(the flared portion of bone) metaphysisis
what are the five type of bones -long -short -flat -irregular -sesamoid
what are some examples of long bones -humerus -femur
what are some examples of short bones -carpals -tarsals
what are some examples of flat bones -sternum -scapula -cranium
what are some examples of irregular bones -vertebrae -facial bones
what is an example of a sesamoid bone -patella
arthrology the study of joints, or articulations, between bones
what are the two classifications of joints -functional(based on joint mobility) -structural(classified by type of tissue that unites the bone)(most widely used)
what are the functional classifications of joints -synarthroidal(immovable) -amphiarthroidal(slightly moveable) -diarthroidal(freely moveable)
what are the structural classifications of joints -fibrous -cartilaginous -synovial
-do not have a joint cavity -united by various fibrous and connective tissues and ligaments -strongest joints in the body fibrous joints
what are the types of fibrous joints -syndemosis -suture -gomphosis
-immovable or very slightly moveable -united by fibrous sheets -ex: inferior tibiofibular joint syndemosis joints
immovable joint only in the skull sutures
immovable joint only in roots of teeth. gomphosis joints
-these joints do not have a joint cavity -virtually immovable cartilaginous joints
what are the types of cartilaginous joints -symphysis -synchondrosis
-slightly moveable joint -seperated by a pad of fibrocartilage -designed for strength and shock absorbancy -ex: pubic symphysis
-immovable, temporary joint -united by rigid cartilage -ex:epiphyseal plate synchodrosis
-these joints permit wide range of motion; freely moveable -complex joints -enclosed by articular capsule -many have accessory soft tissues: meniscus or bursae synovial joints
what are the types of synovial joints -gliding(plane) -hinge(ginglymus) -pivot(trochoidal) -elsipsoid(condyloid) -saddle(sellar) -ball and socket(spheroidal)
-simplest synovial joint; uniaxial movement;very slight characterized by flat or slightly curved surfaces that slide over each other during movement -ex: intercarpal, intertarsal joints, apophyseal joints gliding joint
-permits flexion and extension only; uniaxial. characterized by a pulley shaped (trochlea) fitting into a concave surface -ex: elbow, knee hinge joint
-allows rotation around a single axis; rounded bone is encircled by a ring of cartilage or bone; uniaxial -ex: atlantoaxial joint(c1-c2 joint); proximal radioulnur joint pivot joint
allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. allows movement in two directions at right angles to one another; biaxial. characterized by a condyle fitting into a concave surface -ex: radiocarpal(wrist) joint, mcpj elipsoid joint-
-allows movement similar to ellipsoid;biaxial -difference is in the shape of the articular surfaces -ex: carpometacarpal joint between trapezium and first metacarpal(thumb), ankle saddle joint
ball and socket joint -permits widest range of motion; multiaxial movement -round head of one bone fits into a cup shaped depression of another bone -allows flexion; extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation -ex: hip and shoulder
process or projection extends beyond main body of bone
what are some processes and projections -condyle -coracoid or coronoid -crest -epicondyle -facet -hamulus -head -horn -line -malleolus -protuberance -spine -styloid -trochanter -tubercle -tuberosity
depression hollow or depressed area
what are some depressions -fissure -foramen -fossa -fovea -groove -meatus -notch -sinus -sulcus
what are some openings into or within organs -aperature -foramen -hiatus -orifice -os -ostium -lumen -porus -incisura -meatus -ramus -septum
capitulum small, rounded articular end of a bone
neck(of bone) constricted area below head
principle portion of bone body/shaft
ala wing like
fovea small pit or cuplike depression
hilus indention in an organ where vessels enter or exit
tail tapered end of structure
lobe subdivision of an organ
lobule subdivision of lobe
segment subdivision of lobule
extremity end of long bone
apex pointed end of a structure
base broad flattened end of a structure
aperature hole or opening
foramen hole
hiatus opening or gap
orifice opening into an organ
os opening into mouth or digestive tract
ostium a small opening; usually into a tubular organ
lumen space within a vessel, intestine, or tube
porus opening or pore
incisura notch, indentation at the edge of any structure
meatus canal or tubelike passageway
ramus branch like division
septum division between two open cavities
styloid long pointed process
-trochanter(large) -tubercle(small) elevated process at end of long bones
fissure cleft or deep groove
fossa large pit or cuplike depression
groove linear channel(not as deep as fissure)
notch indention in the border of a bone
sinus recess or groove, hollow cavity or space
sulcus borrow or trench
condyle rounded process at end of bone(articular end)
coracoid or coronoid beak like projections
crest ridge like process
epicondyle small rounded process above a condyle
facet small smooth surface for articular process
hamulus hook shaped process
head expanded end of a long bone
horn horn like process
line similar to a crest, but less prominant(ridge like)
malleolus club shaped process, small hammer
protuberance projecting prominance
spine sharp slender process
ventral anterior
dorsal posterior
inside of body or rotating inward internal
if it is within or part of an organ, it is; intrinsic
fracture with no skin wound closed fracture
fracture with skin wound(fracture breaks through skin) open or compound fracture
fx in which bone doesnt shift or seperate nondisplaced fracture
fx in which bone has shifted or seperated displaced fracture
fracture of vertebra by pressure marked by loss of bone height compression fracture
fracture in which bone is partially bent and partially broken greenstick fracture
a fracture in which the fracture line is at right angles to the long axis of the bone transverse fracture
fx that follows a helical line along and around the course of a long bone spiral or oblique fracture
fracture in which the bone is broken or splintered into pieces comminuted fracture
fracture in which the bone is broken and one end is wedged into the interior of the other impacted fracture
what are the four basic types of tissues -epithelium -connective -muscular -nerve
what are the functions of skin -protection -excretion -regulation -sensation
what are the layers of skin -epidermis -dermis(true layer)
how many layers does the epidermis have 5
what are the five layers of the epidermis -horny layer(dead skin) -translucent layer -granular layer -prickle cell layer -germinal layer(pigment)
how many layers in the dermis 2
what are the layers of the dermis -papillary layer(finger prints) -reticular layer
what are the appendages of the skin -hair -nails
tail, toward feet caudad
toward head cephalad
above superior
below inferior
more central central
lateral, at or near surface peripheral
middle of body or body part medial
lateral away from middle
near skin or surface superficial
far from surface deep
further from point of origin distal
near point of origin proximal
outside or turning outward external
wall or lining of cavity parietal
covering of organ visceral
parts on same side of body ipsilateral
parts on opposite siedes of the body contralateral
palm of hand palmar
sole of foot plantar
top of foot or hand dorsum
path of central ray projection
overall posture of body or specific placement of that body part position
what the IR sees view
specific radiographic projection developed by an individual -named after that individual method
front to back AP
back to front PA
at an angle more than 10 degrees, either caudal or cephalad axial
angling of projection less than 10 degrees, skimming a part tangential
central ray enters one side of body, passing transversely along coronal plane lateral position
CR enters from a side angle oblique position
feet above head trendelenbug position
head above feet fowler's position
sims position rucumbant w/ patient on left anterior side, w/ left leg extended, and right leg partially flexed
supine w/ knees and hips flexed lithotomy position
rucumbent w/ central ray entering horizontal w/ floor position decubitus
standing w/ pt. leaning back against IR lordotic position
moving away abduction
moving toward adduction
straightening extension
bending flexion
extension of spine hyperextension
flexion of spine hyperflexion
outward turning of a foot at the ankle eversion
rotating down of palm inversion
rotating down of palm inversion
rotating up of palm supination
turning on an axis rotation
circular movement of a limb circumduction
tipping or slanting a body part slightly tilt
turning away from the regular standard deviation
tuberosity elevated process along shaft of long bones
what is the surface landmark for C1 mastoid tip
what is the surface landmark for C2-C3 gonion(angle of mandible)
what is the surface landmark for C3-C4 hyoid bone
what is the surface landmark for C5 thyroid cartilage
what is the surface landmark for C7-T1 vertebra prominence
what is the surface landmark for T2-T3 level of jugular notch
what is the surface landmark for T4-T5 level of sternal angle
what is the surface landmark for T7 level of inferior angles of scapula(halfway between jugular notch and tip of the xiphoid)
what is the surface landmark for T9 level of xiphoid process body
what is the surface landmark for T10 level of xiphoid process tip
what is the surface landmark for L2-L3 inferior costal margin-transpyloric plane
what is the surface landmark for L4-L5 level of most superior aspect of iliac crests
what is the surface landmark for S1-S2 level of anterior superior iliac spine(ASIS)
what is the surface landmark for the coccyx level of pubic symphysis and greater trochanters
loin the lateral side of the abdomen between the lowest rib and the upper margin of the ileum
Created by: bigad1982