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Intro to Soc SOC1010

Introduction to Sociology Chp 1 - De More

Sociology systematic study of human society
Sociological Perspective special point of view of sociology thta sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
Global Perspective the study of the larger world and our society's place in it
high-income countries the nations with the highest overall standards of living (united States, Canada)
middle-income countries nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole (Eastern Europe, Latin America)
low-income countries nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor (some African and Asian nations)
positivism a scientific approach ot knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation
theory a statement of how and why specific facts are related
theoretical approach a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
structural-functional approach (functionalism) framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
social structure any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
manifest functions the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
latent functions the unrecognized and unintentional consequences of any social patter
social dysfunction any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
social-conflict approach (conflict theory) a frameowrk for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
gender-conflict approach a point of view thta focuses on inequality and conflict between men and women
feminism support of social equality for men and women
race-conflict a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different races and ethnic categories
macro-level orientation a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole (the "big picture")
micro-level orientation a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situation
symbolic interaction approach (symbolic interactionism) a framework for building theory thta sees society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals
positivist sociology the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
science a logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systymatic observation
empirical evidence information we can verify with our senses
concept a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in simplified form (the family, social class etc)
variable a concept whose value changes from case to case (social class: upperclass/middle class/lower class)
correlation a relation ship in which two or more variables change together
cause and effect a relationship in which change in one variable (independant variable) causes change in another (dependant variable)
independant variable the variable that the experimenter changes or enacts in order to measure change in the dependant variable
dependant variable variable that changes when the independent variable changes; depends on the outcome of the independent variable
measurement a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case (ex: income, occupation, education)
reliability consistancy in measurement
validity actually measuring what you intend to measure
interpretive sociology study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their world
critical sociology the study of society that focuses on the need for change
gender personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
research method a systematic plan for doing research
experiment a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
survey a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview
participant observation a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their activities
stereotype a simplified description applied to every person in some category
sociological imagination the understanding that social outcomes are shaped by social context, actors, and social actions; allows the individual to connect personal troubles to public issues; C. Wright Mills
Herbert Spencer structural-functionalist; compared society to the human body; just as the human body functions together to help one survives, social structures work together to preserve society.
Auguste Comte French social thinker; coined the term "sociology"; believed in studying society through the use of positivism.
Three Stages of Historical Development theological (society expressed was God's will); metaphysical (society is a natural phenomenon, not supernatural); scientific (applied scientific methods to study society); sociology was a product of these stages.
Robert K. Merton structural-functionalist; distinguished between manifest and latent funtions of society and discussed social function and dysfunction
Karl Marx social-conflict approach (conflict theory); his ideas are the basis for what is known as conflict theory which postulates that the competition of individuals and groups for wealth and power is the fundamental process shaping social structure.
Harriet Martineau first female sociologist; translated Auguste Comte's work from French into English
Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago; won Nobel Peace Prize for her activism within the community and contributions to sociology and society.
W.E.B. Du Bois social-conflict approach; earned first doctorate awarded to a person of color; helped found NAACP; coined the term "double consciousness"
Max Weber (vay-ber) symbolic interactionism; his thoughts on the need for an understanding of society from the personal point of view laid foundation for micro-level studies
Verstehan (ver-SHTAY-en) German word for "understanding"; Max Weber contended that it was important not only to observe what individuals do, but also necessary to undertand and appreciate WHY people act as they do.
Created by: MrsAFlaherty