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CA Developmental Psy

Developmental continuous and changes from conception to death not all about changes, some factors are continuous
psychology thoughts, behaviors, feelings social
Domains physical, cognitive,social, emotional
Periods Prenatal Infancy & Toddlers Early Childhood Middle Childhood Adolescence Adult
Prenatal before birth, developmental genetic disorders
Infancy & Toddler birth to 2
Early Childhood 2 to 6
middle childhood 6 to 11
Adolescence 11 to 18
adult 18 and above
Medieval times 6th- 15th centuries, before it was true science, separate from adults, laws to protect children, laws more lenient for children who offend, religious writings contradictory
reformation 16th century, puritan belief of original sin, children born evil had to be civilized, beating for misbehaving, portrayed as miniature adults
Enlightenment 17th century, emphasized human dignity and respect, John Locke & Jean-Jacques Rousseau
John Locke 1632-1704, tabula rasa- blank slate
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778, born "pure", corrupted or enriched by society
Charles Darwin 1809-1882, evolution
late 19th century human development recognized as scientific field
Stanley Hall 1844-1924, 1st scientific study of child development
Alfred Binet 1857-1911, 1st standardized tests of intelligence
arnold gesell 1925 article, genetically programmed sequential pattern of change
20th century studies done by psychologists
present day interdisciplinary, international
maturation unfolding of genetically determining traits, structures, and functions
learning our experiences produce permanent changes
constructivists genetics and environment interact directly
cultural genetics and environment interact indirectly
developmental theory nature and regulation of human structural, functional, and behavioral change over time
objectivity separating self from results, no bias
reliability consistent results
replicability another researcher try your study
validity measure what intend to measure
Naturalistic Observation observe and record, little interaction with participants, a way to gather information before conducting an experiment, can observe one or multiple behaviors, ethnography
ethnography detailed description of culture, live with other culture, compare cultural development
survey predetermined set of questions, doesn't change from person to person, not experimental
correlational the relationship between two variables, no cause and effect
positive correlation both variables increase
negative correlation one var. increases and one decreases
zero correlation no relation, dots everywhere
clinical interviews adapt questions to each individual, questions asked depend on previous answer, follow-up questions, focus on interested areas for clarification, great for studying individual differences need to be ignored in order to see patterns in behavior
experiments researchers manipulate one variable and measure other variable
independent variable manipulated
dependent variable measured
random assignment mix of people, randomly set into groups
experimental group manipulation
control group no manipulation, compare with experimental to see changes
quasi-experimental preexisting variable, can't randomly assign or even manipulate gender, race, religion, mental health, age, personality, background
longitudinal same children observed repeatedly overtime
longitudinal problems selective attrition (tendency for some people to drop out of study more than others) , nonrepresentative sample, practice effect (repeated exposure allows you to get better), cross-generational problems (can't be applied to others)
cross-sectional children of different ages compared at one time
cohort group of people born at the same time and more likely to share same experiences
cross-sectional problems cohort effect- can't apply to other cohorts because of different experiences
sequential or cohort-sequential combo of cross-sectional and longitudinal, same children from different age groups and measurements taken over multiple years, shorter than longitudinal, minimizes cohort effect or helps you identify cohort effects
microgenetic adaptation of longitudinal study, follows the mastery of a task present to a child, follow only for hours or days