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psych 1 final exam

psychology 1 final exam study guide

psychology the scientific, systematic study of behaviors and mental processes
introspection a method of self observation in which participants report on their thoughts and feelings
applied psychology discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals
psychoanalyst a psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
charles darwin established the descendants of species over time
whelm wundt first psychology lab in Germany, introspection, structuralism
sigmund freud psychoanalytic psychologist, unconscious mind, free association, dream analysis
bio-psychological approach a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical change in our bodies influence our behavior
behavioral approach analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
grasping reflex an infants clinging response to a touch on the palm of his/her hand
rooting reflex response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around his/her mouth
sucking reflex sucking following the contact with the nipple
object permanence child's realization that an object exists even when not seen or touched
egocentric young child's inability to understand another persons perspective
telegraphic speech kind of verbal utterances offered by young children in which articles, prepositions, and parts of verbs are left out, but the meaning is clear
assimilation process of fitting objects and experiences into ones schema to deal with new situations and to understand the environment
accommodation the process by which a person changes his/her old methods or schemas to adjust or deal with new situations
critical period a stage or point in development when certain skills/abilities are most easily learned
socialization process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
democratic/authoritative family children and adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives
permissive/laissez-faire family children and adolescents have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non punishing, accepting attitude toward children
schema a conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world
identity crisis a period of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about who they are
identity confusion confusion about ones identity
gender role a set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex
gender stereotype an oversimplified or distorted generalization about the characteristics of men and women
puberty sexual maturation, the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible
menarche the first menstrual period
anorexia nervosa a serious eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight that results in prolonged self starvation and dramatic weight loss
bulimia nervosa a serious eating disorder characterized by compulsive overeating usually followed by self induced vomiting or abuse of laxatives
androgynous combining or blending traditional male and female characteristics
autonomic nervous system the portion of the peripheral nervous system that controls internal biological functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure
central nervous system the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
synapse the gap that exists between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron
axon a single, threadlike structure with in the neuron that extends from and carries signals away from the cell body to neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles
neurons the long, thin cells that constitute the structural and functional unit of nerve tissue along which messages travel to and from the brain
siamese twins any twins who are born joined together in any manner
identical twins twins who come from one fertilized egg, twins having the same heredity
fore-brain a part of the bran that covers the brains central core
mid-brain a small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward
testosterone male sex hormone
fraternal twins twins who come from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm
endocrine system a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the blood stream
pituitary gland the center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones
peripheral nervous system nerves branching out from the spinal cord
somatic nervous system the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
EEG (electroencephalograph) a machine used to record the electrical activity of large portions of the brain
heredity a genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring
consciousness an individuals state of awareness, including a persons feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions
unconsciousness according to freud, the part of the mind that holds mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious behaviors
sleep apnea a sleep disprder in which a person stops breathing for intervals of 10 sec or longer, wakes up briefly, resumes breathing, and returns to sleep
circadian rhythm a regular sequence of biological processes such as temp and sleep that occurs every 24 hours
hypnosis a state of consciousness resulting from a narrow focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility
insomnia a sleep disorder characterized by recurring problems in falling asleep or staying asleep
nightmare unpleasant dreams that contain frightening and anxiety producing images
night terrors sleep disruptions that occur during stage IV of sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion that is seldom remembered
biofeedback the process of learning to control bodily states by monitoring the states to be controlled
REM sleep a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming behind closed eyes
narcolepsy a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day
sensations the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory info to the brain
perception the organization and interpretation of sensory info into meaningful experiences
adaptation any alteration in the structure or function of an organism or any of its parts that results from natural selection and by which the organism becomes better fitted to survive and multiply in its environment.
reversible figure figure being able to switch with a similar figure
gestalt the experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of info into a meaningful whole
subliminal messages brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
auditory nerves the nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the perception of sound
olfactory nerves the nerve that transmits info about odors from the nose to the brain
optic nerves the nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain
closure the act of closing or coming to an end
cochlea a spiral-shaped cavity forming a division of the internal ear in humans
vestibular system three semicircular canals located in the inner ear that provide the sense of balance
ESP (extrasensory perception) a group of psychic experiences that involve perceiving or sending info (images) outside normal sensory processes or channels; includes four general abilities: telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis
weber's law a psycho-physics law stating that forcing change in stimulus to be deleted, a constant proportion of that stimulus must be added or subtracted
retina the light sensitive innermost coating of the back of the eye that contains the rods, cones, and neurons that process visual stimuli
unconditioned response an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to stimulus
unconditioned stimulus an event that elicits a certain predictable response with out previous thought
conditioned stimulus a once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response a response elicited by the conditional stimulus, it is similar to the unconditioned response, but not identical in magnitude or amount
classical conditioning a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
operant conditioning a form of learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases/decreases in the likelihood that similar actions will occur again
punishment to punish for an offense or fault
positive reinforcement stimulus that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again
variable interval a pattern of reinforcement in which change amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement
variable ratio a pattern of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained each time
fixed interval a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement
fixed ratio a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
avoidance conditioning the training of an organism to withdraw from or prevent an unpleasant stimulus before it starts
token economy form of conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects or points that can be accumulated and exchanged for privileges or other rewards
extinction in classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the conditioned stimulus
pavlov's experiment salivating dog
shaping technique of operant conditioning in which the desired behavior is "modeled" by first rewarding only act similar to that behavior and then required even closer approximation to the desired behavior before giving the reward
generalization in classical conditioning, the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response
discrimination the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
negative reinforcement increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Created by: lizhopper2
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