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GI system


Herniation/protrusion of stomach through incompetent cardiac sphincter in left diaphragm 50% population Fullness in chest, reflux, substernal pain, heartburn hiatal hernia
dilated tortuous veins in distal esophagus which often enlarge and rupture causing gross hematemesis lucent wave like filling defects in barium filled eso. demonstrated with valsalva maneuver causes: cirrhosis of liver, liver disease Esophageal varices
inflammatory condition that can be acute or chronic backward flow/ reflux of gastric contents into esophagus due to incompetence of cardiac sphincter Gastroesophageal reflux (esophagitis) GERD
neuromuscular disorder in which the gastroesophageal sphincter fails to relax causing a functional obstruction esophageal body loses tonus and becomes obstructed and enlarged Achalsia megaesophagus
abnormal opening, can be congenital or acquired after birth. 50% after birth from malignancies, 50% after birth from trauma or infection tracheoesophageal fistula (TE fistula)
outpouchings in one or more layer of esophageal wall diverticula
difficulty swallowing painful obstruction, stroke, paralysis, hiatal hernia, carcinoma dysphagia
narrow pylorus, thickening of pyloric muscle occuring in .4% of all live births, pyloric sphincter not working right. vommitting, not growing hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
inflammation of stomach mucosa. epigastric pain. alcoholism malnutrition trauma smoking analgesics gastritis
open sore or lesion of mucosal lining of stomach or duodenum. epigastric pain heartburn restlesness nausea anorexia diarrhea syncope stress alcohol analgesics peptic ulcer
tumore of stomach bleeding outlet obstruction loss of apetite weight loss appears as radiolucency on barium column adenocarcinoma
accessory glands and organs alimentary canal two parts of gi track
secrete digestive enzymes to alimentary canal accessory glands and organs do
salivary glands -parotid-submandibular-sublingual liver gallbladder pancreas what are the accessory glands and organs
musculomembranous tube that extends from mouth to anus vary in diameter according to fuction greatest part in abdomen 29-30 ft alimentary canal purpose
where food is masticated alimentary canal-mouth
organs of swallowing pharynx commone to both food and air alimentary canal-pharnyx and esophagus
digestive process begins (majority occurs) almentary canal-stomach
digestive process completed (absorbs nutrients) alimentary canal-small intestines
organ of egestion and water obsorption alimentary canal-large intestine
termination of canal, external aperture alimentary canal-anus
long muscular tube that carries food and saliva from laryngopharynx to the stomach 10" length 3/4" diameter in midsaggital plane- c6-t11 esophagus
serous (outer) muscular(peristalsis) submucosal mucosal (inner) esophageal wall 4 layers
enters thorax, through mediastinum, anterior to vertebra, posterior to trachea and heart passes through diaphragm, sharp left, expands in diameter (cardiac antrum) joins stomach-esophagogastric junction where does esophagus go?
dilated, sac-like portion of digestive tract extends between esophagus and small intestine stomach
serous muscular submucosal mucosal stomach wall layers
cardia fundus body pyloric portion stomach-4 parts
anterior and posterior left and right stomach- two surfaces, two borders
immediately surrounding esophageal opening cardia-stomach
opening between stomach and esophagus cardiac orifice
muscle controlling cardiac orifice cardiac sphincter
superior portion, expands superiorly and fills dome of left hemidiaphragm fills with gas when in upright position fundus
descending from fundus and beginning at level of cardiac notch, ends at angular notch contains rugae, rugal folds, longitudinal folds that expand when stomach is full greater and lesser curvatures-left and right borders body-stomach
distal to angular notch, extends to duodenum pyloric portion
opening between stomach and duodenum controlled by pyloric sphinter pyloric antrum/orifice
storage-stores food until it is ready to be broken down further breaks down food functions of stomach
chemically-acids, enzymes, other chemicals mechanically-peristalsis, churning how stomach breaks down food (2 ways)
duodenum after broken down where does food go after done being broken down in stomach?
chyme broken down food called
to relax peristalsis in Gi system relaxes gastric muscles and allows for greater distention of stomach glucagon
oral-suck, chew, move food/liquid into throat pharyngeal-triger swallow relex, squeeze food down throat, close airway to prevent aspiration esophageal- relax/tighten the openings atthe top/bottom of feeding tube in throat squeeze food thru eso. to stoma 3 phases of swallowing process
Created by: mlewis17