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Skull Anatomy Pt 1

Skull Facial Bones

What are the 2 divisions of the skull? How many bones each/total Cranial bones (8) & Facial bones (14) Total= 22
What are the 2 divisions of the Cranial bones? The Calvaria (cap) & the Floor--4 bones each
Name the 4 Calvaria Cranial bones: Frontal; Occipital; R. & L. Parietal
Name the 4 Floor Cranial bones: Ethmoid; Sphenoid; R. & L. Temporal
What is the composition of the Calvarium Bones: Diploe--inner spongy/cancelleous layer separating 2 outer plates of compact cortical bone Has Meningeal Grooves (narrow branchlike grooves which cover the internal surface of the bones (=sm grooves) Sulci-larger channels which lodge blood vessels(large
What are the 3 regions of the Floor of the Skull? How are they divided? ANTERIOR Cranial Fossa--Frontal/L. wing Sphenoid MID Cranial Fossa--L. Wings Sphenoid to Apices of Petrous Ridges POSTERIOR Cranial Fossa--Deep depression posterior to petrous ridges thru occipital bone
What is the thickest part of the skull & found on what bone? The Petrous Ridges on the Temporal Bone
Name the 14 Facial Bones: 2 MAXILLA--front of roof of mouth R/L 1 MANDIBLE 2 ZYGOMATIC R/L 2 PALANTINE--L shaped in back roof of mouth R/L 1 VOMER-inf port. of nasal septum 2 INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE R/L 2 LACRIMAL R/L 2 NASAL BONES
Do the 2 Nasal bones articulate with the Lacrimal bones? No. They articulate with each other, a strip of maxilla, & the frontal bone
What bones make up the majority of the hard pallate? The 2 Maxilla bones
What bones comprise our cheek bones? The R. & L. Zygomatic bones (Lateral to the Maxilla & part of the lateral orbit; has 3 processes)
What are the purpose of the nasal conchae? Are they considered Facial or Cranial bones? The nasal conchae warm/cool the air--look like scrolls The Inferior Nasal Conchae are considered facial bones (while the Mid & Superior are considered Cranial--part of Spheniod bone)
Where are the Palantine bones located? Just anterior to the soft palate ("L" shaped)
What are the articulations of the Vomer? Meets with the Maxilla in the front & the Ethmoid Perpendicular Plate in the back
What are the classifications of sutures? Structural=Fibrous (immoveable) Functional=Synarthroidal
What are sutures? Joints that connect the cranial & facial bones
What are the 5 main sutures of the skull? CORONAL--between frontal/parietal bones; SAGITTAL--top of head between 2 parietal bones; 2 SQUAMOSAL--between temporal/parietal bones R/L; LAMDOIDAL--between occipital/parietal bones
What are the 6 Sutural Junctions? BREGMA--coronal/sagittal suture junction; LAMBDA--sagittal/lambdoidal; 2 PTERION--Anterior junction of the squamosal,parietal, & sphenoid; 2 ASTERION--Posterior junction of Squamosal: occipital, parietal, mastoid portion of temporal bone
What are Fontanels? How many? Areas of incomplete ossification in Infant skulls (soft spots). 6 Total at the suture junctions
At what age is Adult cranial size usually reached? 12 years old
At what age range is the skull developing? age 1-5
What are the names of the sutural junctions before closure (when they are still Fontanels)? Anterior (Bregma) Posterior (Lambda) 2 Mastoid (Asterion) 2 Sphenoidal (Pterion)
What are the 3 temporary sutures in infants visible on radiographs? Metopic--extends vertically along midline of frontal bone; 2 Mendosal--pass obliquely upward on the back of the occipital bone
What does it mean if an infant's fontanels are sunken in? Dehydration or drop in BP
What does it mean if an infant's fontanels are bulging? Too much cranial pressure
What is Craniostosis ("Cloverleaf")? When sutures prematurely go away. It inhibits brain growth--may need surgery to re-open. Can cause Microcephalus
What is Acephalus? No Skull
What is Dicephalus or Bicephalus? 2 heads (siamese twins)
What is Macrocephalus? Big head. Can also have Hydrocephalus (water).
What is Hydrocephalus? Water in the head.
What is Microcephalus? Small head--can be caused by craniostosis.
What is Cleft-Palate? Deviation in the palatine bone (no bone).
Describe the Anterior Cranial Fossa & what it contains: Extends from the anterior frontal bone to the lesser wings of the sphenoid. Houses the frontal lobes of cerebrum
Describe the Middle Cranial Fossa & what it contains: Extends from the lesser wings of the sphenoid to the apices of the petrous ridges/pyramids (part of temporal bone). It houses the temporal lobes (lots of foramen, cortex, pituatary gland)
Describe the Posterior Cranial Fossa & what it contains: A deep depression posterior to the petrous ridges. It protects the cerebellum, pons, & medulla oblongata (where spinal cord passes).
What are the 6 ASPECTS of the skull? Frontal (anterior); 2 Lateral; Posterior (occipital); Vertex (crown--from top looking down); Basal (Inferior surface--looking up from underneath)
What is morphology? 1.The study of the forms of things, in particular. 2.The branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms, and with relationships between their structures.
Describe the typical skull & what it is called: Mesocephalic: Petrous Pyramids project anteriorly & medially 47° from MSP (Petrous pyramids=thickest portion of skull --on temporal bone)
Describe the Bracycephalic skull: Petrous pyramids project anteriorly & medially 54° from MSP (Football head/wide-side to side) (+7 of typical)
Describe the Dolichocephalic skull: Petrous pyramids project anteriorly & medially 40° from MSP. (-7 of typical) (Long from front to back; Narrow side/side; deep from vertex (crown) to base (inf. surface).
Why must skull morphology be considered in positioning? 1. Guidelines are based on Meso-cephalic size & shape. 2. Adjustments to centering & CR And/OR part angulation may be required when working with atypical skull shapes. 3. Asymmetry of outer features should be noted (ex. the nose may not always be midline)
Define Vomer: Plow
Define Lacrima: Tear
Define Aveoli: Tooth socket (or air sac in lung)
When discussing a bone, what does sagittal refer to? Flat part of bone
What are the 2 purposes of the Facial bones? 1. To provide structure, shape, & support for the face. 2. Form protective housing for upper ends of Respiratory & Digestive tracts.
Which skull suture is a pair? Squamosal
Which 2 sutural junctions are pairs? The Pterion (anterior) & the Asterion (posterior).
Created by: RadGirl13