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Pharmacology Study of and their interactions with living organisms
Therapeutics The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
Pharmacodynamics The study of the effect of drugs and the mechanism by which those effects are produced
Pharmacokinetics The processes that determine how much dose is delivered to the site of action
Drug Any chemical that can affect living processes
Pharmakon Greek work for "poison"
Clinical pharmacology Study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms
Predictability Ability to foresee patient's drug response
Principle of ease of convenience Convenient route, dose, and timliness
Dose, Size, Route, Timing Four important aspects of drug response
Selectivity Drug's ability to elicit intended effect only
Effectiveness Most important aspect of drug response
Necessary items of patient education drug name and category dosage size dosing schedule administration route and technique expected therapeutic response and timing nondrug measures
Goals of analysis treatment phase judging appropriateness of the prescribed therapy indentifying health problems treatment might cause characterizing patient's capacity for self-cure
Preadministration evaluation data evaluation of therapeutic and adverse effects identification of high-risk patients assessment of patient's capacity for self-care
steps of the nursing process assessment analysis: nursing diagnosis planning implementation evaluation
5+5 rights Right dose, time, route, and medication: AND right to refuse, to education, assessments evaluation, and documentation
duration of drug use The length of time for which a drug is taken. Patients should be taught how long they will be taking their medication
Goals fo the evaluation treatment phase evaluation of: therapeutic responses adverse reactions and interactions patient adherence patient satisfaction with treatment
Goals of the planning treatment phase Defining treatment goals establishing priorities establishing criteria for success
Evaluation One of the most important aspects of drug therapy. You must know the rationale for treatment, the specific indication for which the drug is intended, and the nature and time course of the intended response
Nondrug measures Often used to enhance drug therapy Examples: breathing exercises biofeedback emotional support
Patient adherence The extent to which a patient's behavior coincides with medication administration
PRN order A medication order in which the nurse has discretion regarding how much of a drug to give and when to give it
Harris-Kefauver Admendment Passed in 1962, the first law to demand that drugs be proven beneficial Required that all drugs introduced between 1932 and 1962 undergo testing for effectiveness; any drug that failed would be withdrawn.Established rigorous testing for new drugs
Chemical name The description of a drug under the nomenclature of chemistry
Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act Passed in 2002, authorized the National Institutes of Health and FDA to undertake pediatric testing of drugs already on the market
Phase I Trial The type of trial conducted in normal volunteers Goals-Evaluation of drug metabolism, Determiniation of effects in humans
The Controlled Substance Act, 1070 Set the rules for the manufacture and distribution of drugs with the potential for abuse
Randomized controlled trials Most reliable way to assess drug therapies Distinguising features are: controlled, randomized, blind
Federal Pure Food and Drug Act. 1906 First American law passed to regulate drugs, it required only that drugs be free of adulterants and said nothing about drug safety or effectiveness
The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1938 The first legislation to regulate drug safety
Over-the-counter drugs Drugs that may be purchased without a prescription
Blinding The use of an experimental drug and the controlled chemical compound in identical formulation with numeric codes
Generic name The name of a drug as assigned by the United States Adopted Names Council
Blind study type of study in which individuals do not know whether they are the control or the experimental group
Trade name The name under which the drug in marketed. Also know as proprietary or brand name
Phase II and III Trials Type of trial in which drugs are tested in patients Goals are to determine: therapeutic effects, dosage range, safety
Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003 Grants the FDA the power to require drug companies to conduct pediatric clinical trials on new meds that might be used by children
First-pass effect The rapid inactivaition of some oral drugs as they pass through the liver after being absorbed
Distribution The movement of drugs throughout the body
Excretion The movement of drugs and their metabolities out of the body
Elimination The combination of metabolism and excretion
Peak concentration The highest leval a drug reaches in the body. Must be kept lower than the toxic concentration
Therapeutic range A range of plasma drug levels falling between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration
P-glycoprotein The protein that transports a wide variety of drugs out of the cells
Toxic concentration The plasma level at whick toxic effects begin
Absorption The movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood
Pharmacokinetic processes Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
Pharmacokinetics The study of drug movements throughout the body
Lipophilic Proper term for a drug that is lipid soluble
Half-life When one-half of the drug is eliminated from the body
Trough concentration The lowest level a drug reaches in the body. Must be kept above the minimum effective concentration
minimum effective concentration The plasma drug level below which therapeutic effects will not occur
Potency The amount of drug required to elicit an effect
Affinity The strengh of the attraction between a drug and its receptor
ED50 The dose required to produce a defined therapeutic response in 50% of the population
Intrinsic activity The ability of a drug to activate a receptor upon blinding
Noncompetitive antagonists Antagonists that blind irreversibly to receptors
Therapeutic index The ratio of the 50% lethal dose toe the 50% effective dose is a measure of a drug's safety
Agonists molecules that activate receptors
Ligand-gated ion channels Receptors that regulate flow of ions into and out of cells
Antagonists Molecules that prevent receptor activation by endogenous regulatory molecules and drugs
Maximal efficacy The largest effect that a drug can produce
Types of drug interactions Drug-Drug Drug-Food Drug-herb
Greatest risks for drug-herb interactions Increased toxicity, reduced therapeutic effects
Grapefruit effect Inhibition of the intestinal metabolism of certain drugs, therby increasing their absorption, which in turn increases their blood levels
P-glycoprotein (PGP) A transmembrane protein that transports a wide variety of drugs out of cells, including cells of the intestinal epithelium, placenta, blood-brain barrier, liver, and ,kidney tubules
Inducing agents Drugs that stimulate the synthesis of CYP isozymes inducing agents can increase the rate of drug metabolism as much as two to threefold
Three outcomes of drug-drug interactions Intensification of drug effects reduction of drug effects new response not seen with either drug alone
potentiative Them used when one drug intensify the effects of another drug
Inhibitory Term for interactions that result in reduced drug effects
Timing for empty stomach order 1 hour before a meal or 2 hours after
Two ways to minimize adverse reactions minimize the number of drugs a patient receives take a thorough drug history
Physical dependence A state in which the body has adapted to prolonged drug exposure in such a way that an abstinence syndrome will result if drug is discontinued
Teratogenic effect a drug-induced birth defect
Allergic reaction An immune response to an outside substance
Torsades de pointes A dysrhythmia that can progress to fatal ventricular fibrillation. Drugs that prolong the QT interval pose a risk of torsades de pointes.
Mild adverse reaction Symptoms of drowsiness, nausea, itching and rash
Anaphylaxis A life-threatening response characterized by bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, and a precipitous drop in blood pressure
latrogenic disease A disease produced by drugs
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) As defined by the World Health Organization, any noxious, unintended effect that occurs at normal drug doses
Severe adverse reaction Symptons of respiratory depression, neutropenia, hepatocellular injury, anaphylaxis, and hemorrhage-all of which can result in death
Idiosyncratic effect An uncommon drug response resulting from a genetic predisposition
Toxicity An adverse drug reaction caused by excessive dosing
Carcinogenic effect The ability of certain medications and enviromental chemicals to cause cancer
Side Effect a nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect produced at therapeutic doses. a side effect may develop soon after the onset of drug use or may not appear until a drug has been taken for weeks or months
Teratogens Medicines and other chemicals capable of causing birth defects
Created by: kendal22



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