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PSY CHP 16-18

Stack #80905

Psychological disorder "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladptive, and unjustifiable
Medical model concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these "mental" illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms
Bio-pyscho-social perspective A contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
Neurotic disorder psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
Psychotic disorder psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Anxiety disorder Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, peristent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic disorder anxiety disorder marked by minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Phobia anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
Obsessive-compulsive disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and / or actions (compulsions)
Mood disorders Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Major depressive disorder mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasures in most activities
Manic episode mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimist state
Bipolar episode mood disorder which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
Dissociative disorders Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Dissociative identity disorder rare dissociative disorder in which of person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
Schizophrenia group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Delusions False beliefs, often of persecutions or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Personality disorders disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial personality disorder personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Psychotherapy emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
Eclectic approach An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previous repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
Resistance In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Interpretation In psychoanalysis, the analysist's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
Transference In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent.)
Client-centered therapy A humanistic therapy, developed by carl rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic enivoroment to facilitate the clients' growth
Active listening Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restatesm abd clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
Behavior therapy Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
Counterconditioning A behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on the classical conditioning. Includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
Exposure therapies Behavioral techniques, such as systemiatic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or reality) to the things they fear and avoid
Systematic desensitization A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with the gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
Aversive conditioning A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) whith an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Token economy An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired bahvior, for various priviledges or treats
Cognitive therapy Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Cognitive-behavior therapy A popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changes self-defeating thinking) with the behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Family therapy Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an indivual's unwated behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Regression toward the mean tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
Meta-analysis procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Psychopharmacology The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Lithium A chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders
Electroconvulsive therapy A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized pateint
Psychosurgery Surgery that remoes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
Lobotomy A now-rare psychosurigcal procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the innter brain.
Social psychology The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Attribution theory The theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Fundamental attribution error The tendency for observers, when analyzing another behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Attitude A belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Cognitive dissonance theory The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting discomfort by changing our attitudes.
Conformity Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Normative social influence Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational social influence Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Social facilitation Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
Social loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Deindividuation The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Group polarization The enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
Groupthink The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Prejudice An unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
Stereotype A generalized belief about a group of people.
Ingroup "Us" people with whom one shares a common indentity.
Outgroup "Them" those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
Ingroup bias The tendency to favor one's own group.
Scapegoat theory The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Just-world phenomenon The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Aggression Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Frustration-aggression principle The principle that frustation - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Conflict A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
Social trap A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Mere exposure effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Passionate love An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate love The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
Equity A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Self-disclosure Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Bystander effect The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Social exchange theory The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Superordinate goals Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Created by: ms.mhill
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