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121 Imaging Unit 1

Density is a _____ Photographic property. Quantitative
Density defines the ______ of the image. Completeness
Density & Contrast control the _____ of details Visibility
Proper _____ is required to correctly evaluate contrast, recorded detail or distortion Density
Factors that Influence & Control Density are: 2 things 1) Pt. Thickness & Opacity 2) Prime Factors
What are the 4 prime factors? 1) mA 2) Time 3) kVp 4) Distance (SID)
Things that determine Pt. thickness & Opacity 1) Physique (habitus) 2) Age/Sex 3) Development 4) Pathology/Trauma 5) Tissue composition/Density 6) Ratio of Soft tissue/bone or Fat/muscle 7) Hollow vs. solid organs 8) Presence or absence of contrast 9) Presence or absence of cast
Post reduction wet cast technique (2) 1) 2x mAs + 10% kVp 2) +15kVp
Post reduction dry cast technique 1) 2x mAs 2) 15 kVp
____, ______, ______, & ______ are main factors that influence how much radiation will be absorbed by a body part 1) Thickness 2) Atomic number 3) Atomic Density 4) kilovoltage
__-___cm thickness of normal tissue will absorbe ____% of a typical beam of xrays 1) 4-5 2) 50%
# of Electrons moving from cathode to anode per second is the _____ _____ and is measured in ____ 1) Tube current 2) mA
mA controls the _________ of the x-ray beam Exposure Rate
Radiographic density is ______ proportional to mA if time is constant. Directly
______ _______ is the duration that the tbe current is allowed to flow. Exposure Time (time)
____ does not control or influence the exposure rate, but rather how long the exposure is permitted to continue Time
mAs is the ______ of mA & _____. 1) Product 2) Time
Radiographic density is _____ proportional to mAs Directly
mA & Time are ______ proportional if all other factors are constant Inversely
______% change in mAs is needed to have a visible change 30%
To correct moderate overexposure you should ______ mAs by _______ 1) reduce 2) one half
To Correct moderate underexposure you should ______ mAs by ______ 1) increase 2) Double
______ or a slight enlarging of the focal spot. Blooming
Blooming or slight enlargment of the focal spot occurs with ______ ______ of mA. The F.S. tends to decrease slightly when kVP is ______ 1) large increases 2) Increased
Changing mAs does not influence the penetration ability of the xray beam? True or False True
mAs influences the number of _____ produced xray photons
_____ is the electric potential difference (electrical pressure) applied b/t the cathode & anode in the xray tube and serves to drive the electrons from the filament on the cathode to the target on the anode kVp
As kV is increased the energy of the photons ______ and the beam is ___ penetrating 1) increase 2) more
1) kV increase will increase the _____ & ______ of the beam and _____ the wavelength. 1) Energy 2) Penetration 3) Decrease
With all other factors the same, increasing kV will _____ exposure rate increase
kV is the controlling factor of _______. Contrast
Increasing kV _______ contrast decreases
kVp is a secondary controlling or influencing factor for ______ Density
kVp has a ______ relationship b/t it and exposure but it is not proportional. Direct
There is no precise method for determining kVp-mAs density ratio. True or False True
Law of Reciprocity mA * T = mAs
Sharpness of Detail has 2 subcategories 1) Recorded Detail 2) Distortion
Recorded Detail has 3 factors 1) Geometric Factor 2) Motion Factor 3) Material Factors
Geometric Factors are (3) 1) Focal Spot size 2) SID 3) OID
Material factors are (2) 1) Film/Screen combination 2) Film/Screen contact
Distortion has 2 Factors 1) Size distortion 2) Shape Distortion
Size distortions are (2) 1) SID 2) OID
Shape Distortion is Tube-part-film alignment
Visibility of detail has 2 subcategories 1) Density 2) Contrast
Density factors (9) 1) mAs 2) kVp 3) SID 4) Collimation 5) Grid Ratio 6) Filtration 7) Pathology 8) Anatomy 9) Film/Screen Combination
Contrast Factors (7) 1) kVp 2) Collimation 3) Grid Ratio 4) Filtration 5) Pathology 6) Anatomy 7) Film/Screen Combination
Gray Scale What shows up in each 1) Black= ______ (1) 2) Dark Gray= ______(1) 3) Medium Gray= _______(1) 4) Light Gray=______(2) 5) Lighter Gray= _____(3) 6) White=_____(2) 1) Air 2) Nothing 3) Fat 4) Fluid/Water 5) Muscle, Blood, Solid Organs 6) Bone, Contrast Media
Grid Factors 1) NO Grid = _____ 2) 5:1=____ 3) 6:1=____ 4) 8:1=____ 5) 10:1 & 12:1=____ 6) 15:1 & 16:1=____ 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4 5) 5 6) 6
Black areas are called _____ and white areas are called _____ 1) Opaque 2) Translucent
Black areas on the film have received less radiation exposure. True or False False
White areas received less radiation exposure. True or False True
What are the 4 Radiograpic Properties 1) Density 2) Contrast 3) Recorded Detail 4) Distortion
_______ measures light transmitted through Film Dencstometer
_______ measures the amount of Ionization in air Dosimeter
_____ _____ _____ are on the film and react with xray Photons afterward they become ____ ____ ____ which shows up black on xray film 1) Silver Halide Crystals 2) Black Metallic Silver
The formation of silver halide crystals to black metallic silver is called the what Gurney-Mott Theory
Density is useful as a diagnostic tool when it falls within this range. .25+b+f - 2.0+b+f
Smallest bundle/packet of energy that travels in wave form but is not visible Photon
Exposure Rate is also known as _____ Time
Ionization in Air is measured in Roentgen
2*mA = 2*#Electrons = 2*#x-rays = 2*Density True or false True
______ is the adding or removing of electrons from an atom Ionization
mAs is the ______ controller of x-ray _____ & ______ 1) Primary 2) Quantity 3) Density
xray quantity & radiographic density are indirectly proportional to mAs True or False False
Short wavelength has ____ penetration and is caused by ____ kVp 1) High 2) High
Long wavelength has ____ penetration and is caused by ___ kVp 1) low 2) Low
___ has the greatest effect on density compared to mA, Time & SID kVp
Doubling the kVp will cause density to increase by a factor of 4, 5, or 6 True or False True
Changes in kVp can be visible as low as ___% 5%
To increase kVp by 15% is like doubling the mAs and decreasing kVp by 15% is like halving the mAs this is called the what 15% Rule
kV and contrast are _____ proportional inversely
to decrease contrast and maintain density you would do what Increase kVp by 15% & 1/2 mAs
to increase contrast and maintain density you would do what Decrease kVp by 15% & Double mAs
Created by: Ravann