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AP Psych Ch 10 Vocab

Psychology Eighth Edition by David G. Myers

Concepts a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototypes a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category(at when comparing feature creatures to a prototypical bird such as a robin).
Algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error-prone- use of heuristics.
Heuristics a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently: usually speedier but more error prone than algorithms.
Confirmation Bias a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s pre-conceptions.
Fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
Mental Set a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
Functional Fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Representative Heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Availability Heuristic estimating the likelihoods of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind(perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
Overconfidence the tendency to be more confidence than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs or judgments.
Framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly effect decisions and judgments.
Belief Bias the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions to seem invalid.
Belief Perseverance clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Phonemes in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morphemes in a language, the smallest unit that carries unit; maybe a word or part of a word (such as a prefix).
Grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
Semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning.
Syntax the rule for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
Babbling Stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
One-Word Stage the stage in speech development, from about age 1-2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-Word Stage beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks two words statements.
Telegraphic Speech (word combination) early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram; “go car”; using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Behaviorist Theories (BF Skinner) worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
Nativist Theories (Noam Chomsky) language is an innate faculty - that is to say that we are born with a set of rules about language in our heads which he refers to as the 'Universal Grammar'.
Created by: BrandonMush
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