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AP Psych Ch 1 Vocab

Psychology Eighth Edition by David G. Myers

Hindsight Bias The idea that we knew it all along
Overconfidence a person’s belief that they are smarter than they really are and that they can do things more quickly than they really can.
Case Study when a psychologist studies one person in depth in hope of revealing universal principles
Survey technique for discovering the attitudes and behaviors of people based on questioning a random sample of people
Random Sample a sample that represents a population because each person has an equal chance.
False Consensus Effect The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.
Correlation Coefficient an expression that ranges from -1 to +1 and expresses the relationship of two sets of data
Scatterplots a graph of dots that represents the values of two variables
Perfect Positive of the two variables, both went up at equal increments
Perfect Negative of the two variables, one went up while the other went down in perfect order
No Relationship the two variables have no relationship and do not effect each other
Illusory Correlations the belief that there is a relationship when there is not.
Hypothesis the question that is being asked and will be answered through the experiment
Operational Definition the definition of vague terms in an experiment (how religious someone is)
Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance
Random Assignment assigning participants in an experiment to be in the control group or in the experimental group without them knowing, and in a random fashion.
Independent Variable the experimental factor that is being manipulated
Dependent Variable outcome of the manipulated factor
Experimental Condition the condition of an experiment that exposes the participants to the treatment
Control Group The group of people that do not partake in the experiment and create a baseline for other people
Double-Blind Procedure when both the research participants and the research staff don’t know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group.
Placebo any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which is presumed to be an active agent.
Hawthorne Effect the concept that some people will work harder than others in an experiment
Replication the ability of an experiment to be done again and have the same results
Measures of Central Tendency Mean, median, and mode
Measures of Variation Range, Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation the measure of how scores vary from the mean. The closer to zero, the greater chance that the data is closer to the average.
Distributions showing in what ranges certain data falls
Histogram a bar type graph that explains how many pieces of data are in any given range.
Normal Curve also known as a bell curve in which 68% is normal, 95% is above that, and most people are in the 99.7% data range
Skew the data having a tail to the left or right which is caused by outliers
Outlier any piece of data that is outside the data range and falsely affects the mesure of central tendency and variation
Statistical Significance statement of how likely that an event occurred by chance
Replication the experiment can be done again
P-Value shows statistical significance. Something is significant if it has a p value of less that 0.05
Informed Consent written consent of a participant before participating
Minimize Risk and Discomfort potential benefits must outweigh the risks for the subject
Debriefing after the experiment is over, the researcher must tell the participant the purpose of the experiment
Research Committee a committee that says if an experiment is ethical or not
Animal Research the testing of animals before testing humans so that humans are not risked in the process
Created by: BrandonMush