Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

Normal Size Small Size show me how

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# AP Psych Ch 1 Vocab

### Psychology Eighth Edition by David G. Myers

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Hindsight Bias | The idea that we knew it all along |

Overconfidence | a person’s belief that they are smarter than they really are and that they can do things more quickly than they really can. |

Case Study | when a psychologist studies one person in depth in hope of revealing universal principles |

Survey | technique for discovering the attitudes and behaviors of people based on questioning a random sample of people |

Random Sample | a sample that represents a population because each person has an equal chance. |

False Consensus Effect | The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation. |

Correlation Coefficient | an expression that ranges from -1 to +1 and expresses the relationship of two sets of data |

Scatterplots | a graph of dots that represents the values of two variables |

Perfect Positive | of the two variables, both went up at equal increments |

Perfect Negative | of the two variables, one went up while the other went down in perfect order |

No Relationship | the two variables have no relationship and do not effect each other |

Illusory Correlations | the belief that there is a relationship when there is not. |

Hypothesis | the question that is being asked and will be answered through the experiment |

Operational Definition | the definition of vague terms in an experiment (how religious someone is) |

Random Sample | a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance |

Random Assignment | assigning participants in an experiment to be in the control group or in the experimental group without them knowing, and in a random fashion. |

Independent Variable | the experimental factor that is being manipulated |

Dependent Variable | outcome of the manipulated factor |

Experimental Condition | the condition of an experiment that exposes the participants to the treatment |

Control Group | The group of people that do not partake in the experiment and create a baseline for other people |

Double-Blind Procedure | when both the research participants and the research staff don’t know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group. |

Placebo | any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which is presumed to be an active agent. |

Hawthorne Effect | the concept that some people will work harder than others in an experiment |

Replication | the ability of an experiment to be done again and have the same results |

Measures of Central Tendency | Mean, median, and mode |

Measures of Variation | Range, Standard Deviation |

Standard Deviation | the measure of how scores vary from the mean. The closer to zero, the greater chance that the data is closer to the average. |

Distributions | showing in what ranges certain data falls |

Histogram | a bar type graph that explains how many pieces of data are in any given range. |

Normal Curve | also known as a bell curve in which 68% is normal, 95% is above that, and most people are in the 99.7% data range |

Skew | the data having a tail to the left or right which is caused by outliers |

Outlier | any piece of data that is outside the data range and falsely affects the mesure of central tendency and variation |

Statistical Significance | statement of how likely that an event occurred by chance |

Replication | the experiment can be done again |

P-Value | shows statistical significance. Something is significant if it has a p value of less that 0.05 |

Informed Consent | written consent of a participant before participating |

Minimize Risk and Discomfort | potential benefits must outweigh the risks for the subject |

Debriefing | after the experiment is over, the researcher must tell the participant the purpose of the experiment |

Research Committee | a committee that says if an experiment is ethical or not |

Animal Research | the testing of animals before testing humans so that humans are not risked in the process |

Created by:
BrandonMush