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# AP Psych Ch 2

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Scientific Method | A 5 step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis under conditions designed to control bases and subjective judgements |

Validity | The degree to which results actually measure what they intend to measure accurately |

Reliability | The degree to which results can be replicated (consistency) |

Operational Definition | Exact procedures used in estimating experimental conditions and measurement of results |

Confounding Variables | Variables that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment |

Controls | Constraints that the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure that each subject has the exact same conditions |

Random Assignment | Equal chance of being chosen for the experimental group |

Ex post facto | Choosing subjects based on certain factors (not random) |

Correlational study | Shows the relationship between two variables but not a cause and effect (no controls) |

Survey | Behaviors, attitudes, opinions, beliefs; must be careful of biased questions and results or lies |

Naturalistic Observation | Natural environment; reduce attention drawn; no controls |

Longitudinal Study | One group followed for a long period; Accurate but is costly and time consuming |

Cross-sectional study | cross section (rep. subset) at a specific time. Cost less money and time but is less accurate |

Cohort-sequential study | A mixture of the longitudinal and cross sectional studies |

Personal Bias | Something you believe in |

Expectancy Bias | What you expect to happen |

Double-Blind Study | Eliminates bias. The experimenter and the subject both do not know the control and experimental group. |

Frequency Distribution | A summery chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs |

Descriptive Statistics | Statistical procedures used to describe characteristics |

Standard deviation | A measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the scores and their mean |

Correlation | A relationship between two variables, in which changes in one variable are reflected on changes in the other variable |

Correlation Coefficient | A number between -1 and 1 expressing degree of relationship between variables |

Inferential Statistics | Describes if results are meaningful (chance or reliable) |

Random Sample | A sample group of subjects selected by chance (no bias) |

Representative Sample | A sample obtained in such a way that it reflects the distribution of important variables in the larger population in which the researchers are interested |

Significant Difference | Psychologists accept a difference between the groups as "real" or significant when the probability that it might be due to an atypical sample drawn by chance is less than 5% |