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AP Psych Ch 2

Scientific Method A 5 step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis under conditions designed to control bases and subjective judgements
Validity The degree to which results actually measure what they intend to measure accurately
Reliability The degree to which results can be replicated (consistency)
Operational Definition Exact procedures used in estimating experimental conditions and measurement of results
Confounding Variables Variables that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment
Controls Constraints that the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure that each subject has the exact same conditions
Random Assignment Equal chance of being chosen for the experimental group
Ex post facto Choosing subjects based on certain factors (not random)
Correlational study Shows the relationship between two variables but not a cause and effect (no controls)
Survey Behaviors, attitudes, opinions, beliefs; must be careful of biased questions and results or lies
Naturalistic Observation Natural environment; reduce attention drawn; no controls
Longitudinal Study One group followed for a long period; Accurate but is costly and time consuming
Cross-sectional study cross section (rep. subset) at a specific time. Cost less money and time but is less accurate
Cohort-sequential study A mixture of the longitudinal and cross sectional studies
Personal Bias Something you believe in
Expectancy Bias What you expect to happen
Double-Blind Study Eliminates bias. The experimenter and the subject both do not know the control and experimental group.
Frequency Distribution A summery chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
Descriptive Statistics Statistical procedures used to describe characteristics
Standard deviation A measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the scores and their mean
Correlation A relationship between two variables, in which changes in one variable are reflected on changes in the other variable
Correlation Coefficient A number between -1 and 1 expressing degree of relationship between variables
Inferential Statistics Describes if results are meaningful (chance or reliable)
Random Sample A sample group of subjects selected by chance (no bias)
Representative Sample A sample obtained in such a way that it reflects the distribution of important variables in the larger population in which the researchers are interested
Significant Difference Psychologists accept a difference between the groups as "real" or significant when the probability that it might be due to an atypical sample drawn by chance is less than 5%
Created by: Uhniqua
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