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Test 2 OB

chapters 6-10

QuestionAnswer
Motivation The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
Theory X Workers have little ambition, dislike work and avoid responsibility
Theory Y Workers are self directed, enjoy work, accept responsibility
Self determination Theory People prefer to feel they have control over their actions
Goal setting theory specific and difficult goals, with self generated feedback, lead to higher performance
Self efficacy An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
Equity Theory Employees compare their ratios of outcomes to inputs of relevant others
Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual
Skill Variety degree to which the job incorporates a number of different skills and talents’ Task Identity
Task Significance how the job impacts the lives of others
Autonomy identifies how much freedom and independence the worker has over the job
Feedback how much the job generates direct and clear information about the worker’s performance
Job Rotation the shifting of an employee from one task to another with similar skill requirements
Job Enrichment The expansion of a job by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work
Employee Involvement A participative process that uses employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organization’s success
Flextime allows employees to choose the hours they work within a defined period of time
Job Sharing allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40 hour week job
Telecommuting allows workers to work from home at least 2 days a week on a computer linked to the employer’s office
Profit Sharing Plans Pays out a portion of the organization’s profitability
Gain sharing Pays for improvements in group productivity from one period to another
Flexible Benefits Flexible benefits give individual rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his or her current needs and situations
Forming Members feel much uncertainty
Storming Lots of conflict between members of the group
Norming Stage Members have developed close relationships and cohesiveness
Performing Stage The group is finally fully functional
Adjourning Stage In temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance
Role A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit
Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role
Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation
Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation
Psychological Contract an unwritten agreement that sets out mutual expectations of management and employees
Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations
Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members
Performance norms level of acceptable work
Appearance norms what to wear
Social arrangement norms friendships and the like
Allocation of resources norms distribution and assignments of jobs and material
Social loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
Groupthink Situations where group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views
Groupshift When discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold
Work group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility
Work team Generates positive synergy through coordinated effort
Created by: Jlaney08